How do you treat lymphadenopathy


Benign (benign) enlargements of the lymph nodes arise reactively as an immune response to an inflammatory infection. Thus, they are an expression of the body's own defense. The cause of the swelling can be, for example, a cold, an inflammation or a viral infection. The swelling is painful, and people often have a fever. Nonetheless, benign lymphomas do not require any special treatment, as they usually subside shortly after recovery. So it is enough to treat the infection itself.


The cause of the development of malignant lymphomas lies in the white blood cells, the so-called lymphocytes. These are formed in the bone marrow in several stages of maturity. In those affected, the formation of blood cells is disturbed, the cells change (mutation). Malignant lymphomas are formed by the proliferation of these mutated cells. The changed cells can spread to various tissues via the lymph and blood vessels. In this way, the cancer also spreads selectively.


Malignant lymphomas usually start out as a painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpit or groin area. Sometimes the spleen is enlarged, which in turn can press on other organs and thus lead to nausea or a feeling of fullness. Those affected have a fever (over 38 degrees Celsius), night sweats and severe weight loss are common.


The course of the disease with a malignant lymphoma and the prognosis for a cure depend on the spread in number and size as well as the type of lymphoma. Because there are many different types of lymphoma, each of which arose from the white blood cells in different ways.


There are basically 3 main categories:

  • B-cell,
  • T-cell (both non-Hodgkin lymphomas)
  • Hodgkin lymphoma


B-cell lymphomas

B-cell lymphomas belong to the class of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, but they can still be subdivided into a large number of more precise tumor types, which, depending on their type, spread aggressively in the tissue in different ways. Basically, B-cell lymphomas are among the most common malignant neoplasms in the lymphatic system, but have a relatively good chance of recovery, as they only spread slowly to moderately.


T-cell lymphomas

T-cell lymphomas also belong to the non-Hodgkin lymphomas and can in turn be divided into many different subcategories. In contrast to B-cell lymphomas, they occur less often, but are more aggressive in their spread.


Hodgkin lymphoma

While the non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a collection of different types of tumors, the Hodgkin lymphomas are a cell mutation that only affects the so-called Reed-Sternberg giant cells. With early therapy, the chances of recovery from the disease are relatively high.