Which ministers were killed by Sambhaji Maharaj

III. The Empire of the Great Mughals The Mughal Empire owed its rapid rise, like the contemporary empires of the Ottomans and the Persian Safavids, to the decisive battlefield use of field artillery. The term “gunpowder rich” has been used in this context, but this expression does not go to the heart of the new strategy. Gunpowder and cannons had been around for a long time. The mobile field artillery, which, placed on mounts and pulled by horses, oxen or elephants, could be used quickly anywhere, was the new type of weapon that spread suddenly at the beginning of the 16th century. The Ottoman Sultan Selim I, the Cruel, defeated the Mamluk sultans of Syria and Egypt and shortly afterwards also led the artillery against Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasties, but he was already equally armed and able to defend himself claim against the Ottoman. A few years later, on the battlefield of Panipat, the Mughal Mughal defeated the vastly outnumbered army of the Sultan of Delhi with his field artillery, which from then on accompanied the Mughals in all battles. Baber's use of the new weapon was astonishing in itself because he hadn't been familiar with it for long. He was known to be a skilled archer. The Uzbeks had expelled him from his home country Ferghana, east of Samarkand. He had then established himself in Kabul and from there began his campaign to India, which, as a descendant of Timur, he regarded as his rightful heir. When Baber finally went to battle against the Sultan of Delhi, his army was far superior to him. He also had hardly any war elephants and had to rely on his riders - and the field artillery. He had a Turkish cannon founder in his service who knew how to manufacture cannons on site. Baber reports about it in his autobiography, which is a literary masterpiece. There he also describes his battle plan. He set up his cannons in a wide front and had them connected with leather straps. He also posted musket shooters between the cannons. His riders then drove the sultan's army towards the cannons with repeated flank attacks. When his elephants were hit by the cannonballs, there was no stopping them. The sultan's army fell into utter confusion, and he himself fell on the battlefield. Baber took Delhi, but what he captured there he immediately spent on the further production of cannons, which he had transported by ship down the Ganges. So he soon succeeded in conquering Bengal as well. The Sultan of Bengal also had cannons, but he did not know how to use them, as Baber reports with an ironic undertone. The cannons only fired now and then, probably just to prove they existed. What Baber noted here also later applied to the artillery of many Indian rulers. Their use was often limited to showing off without a strategic concept. The Mughals knew how to use this type of weapon and guarded the secret of the manufacture of cannons. Even when the Rajput princes became their most loyal followers, they did not initiate them into the art. It took a long time for the Rajputs to cast their first cannons themselves. The brilliant baber had an easy time of it in India, but his days were numbered. He died soon after conquering almost all of northern India. His son Humayun, who had fought at his side on the Panipat battlefield, had been sent to Kabul to hold the position there. He returned to Delhi when his father was ill and then became terminally ill himself. Baber prayed that God would let him die and save his son's life. It was so, and Humayun succeeded him. That was not to be taken for granted, because there were no "crown princes" among the Mughals. Every Mughal Prince or III. The empire of the Mughals 35 other relatives could aspire to the crown. One can speak of a dynastic Darwinism here, which contributed to the strengthening of the dynasty. It was always the strongest and most ruthless who came to power and not whoever it was. Later, Mughal princes were even supposed to take precautionary measures for power while the father was still alive. This was not yet the case with Humayun's succession to the throne, but he too almost fell victim to an intrigue at court. However, his luck did not last long. The Afghan Sher Shah robbed Humayun of rule and, like his father, had to move away as a refugee after being expelled from Ferghana. While on the run, his son Akbar was born in 1541, who was to become the greatest Mughal Mughal. Humayun found refuge with the Safavid Tamhasp in Persia and spent many years there in exile, while Akbar grew up with a brother of Humayun in Kabul. It was only after Sher Shah's death that his weak successor lost control of the empire that Humayun could dare to conquer India again with Persian help. Sher Shah had been a skilled administrator and had given both coinage and property taxation a solid foundation. Humayun was able to build on this and consolidate the power of the Mughals. But he was not granted a long reign. He died of a fall from the steep stairs of his library. Akbar succeeded him to the throne at the age of 13. The government was initially left to regents. But even at such a young age Akbar had to take part in the fight against a bold challenger who wanted to seize the opportunity to put an end to the power of the Mughals. The challenger was the Hindu Hemu, who adopted the royal name Vikramaditya to legitimize his claim to power. Hemu was a serious opponent, having won many battles for his master as the prime minister of a successor to Sher Shah. But now the fortunes of war left him. Hit by an arrow in the eye, he fell to the ground. Akbars Ge III. The Empire of the Mughals asked the young boy to behead his opponent himself - and he did it. Akbar had one notable flaw: he was illiterate. Since Baber and Humayun were literary and Akbar himself was highly intelligent, this deficiency is not easy to explain. Some have attributed it to his youth in harsh Afghanistan, others believe that he might have been dyslexic. In any case, he made up for this lack with an amazing memory. He participated in debates with leading scholars. To this end, he had a special discussion hall built with a column in the middle, to which four bridges led from the corners of the hall. He sat in the middle, the discussants stood at the ends of the bridges. The audience could listen to the debates in the room below. Akbar asked many questions and received many answers. In this way he was able to gather a lot of information. His empire expanded rapidly. With the conquest of Gujarat (1574) and Bengal (1576) he consolidated his rule in India. At the same time he pursued a wise foreign policy. The Shah of Persia and the ruler of the Uzbeks, Shah Abdullah, courted Akbar alike. The Uzbek suggested that he invade Persia and divide it up among themselves. The Shah of Persia, on the other hand, wanted to make common cause with Akbar against the Uzbeks. It was a great temptation because it might have enabled Akbar to win Ferghana back. But he rejected both requests and was on friendly terms with both realms. It was even possible for him to wrest Persia from Kandahar and thus move the border of the Mughal Empire to the Helmand River. However, he continued to have good relations with the Shah of Persia. 1. Akbar's administrative reform and religious policy Akbar was not only successful as a conqueror and foreign politician. He also carried out fundamental administrative reforms that remained decisive for his successors. The system of land allocation (iqta) adopted by the 1. Akbars administrative reform and religious policy 37 Delhi Sultanate, he inserted into a new hierarchy. The highest officials of the empire - mostly princes - had the rank 7000, and at the end of the hierarchy there were those with the rank 500 or even only 100. Each rank was assigned a certain level of salary and the number of cavalrymen to be maintained. This ensured flexibility, officers could be accommodated in this order as well as civil officials or even scholars and court musicians, who of course did not have to entertain any cavalrymen. The land allocation (jagir) corresponded to the rank (mansab). A promotion was therefore inevitably associated with a transfer. This in turn prevented the formation of domestic power. Provincial governors were at the top of the hierarchy, but not infrequently there were important fortresses in the provinces whose commanders also had a high rank and thus formed a counterbalance to the governors. Another problem Akbar had to resolve was how to accurately evaluate land grants and determine the amount of tax. The latter was by nature an arbitrary decision that only the ruler could make personally. He had to assess the status of the harvest under the monsoon conditions, which could be better or worse. With the expansion of the empire, regional differences had to be taken into account, which the Great Mughal could hardly keep an eye on in his decision, which he sometimes even had to make on the battlefield. Akbar solved all of these problems by withdrawing all land allotments and placing the land under the central tax administration for ten years, which paid the officers and civil servants their salaries directly. During these ten years, the tax recorders had to precisely record all harvest yields. From this, a ten-year average could be calculated (dasalnama), which enabled an extrapolation. Then the land allocations were made again. The administration now knew exactly to what extent the allocation corresponded to the rank of the person concerned. In addition, the continuation of the through III. The realm of the Great Moguls38 on average spared the Great Mogul the annual decision that had to become more and more arbitrary with the size of the empire. As long as Akbar watched over this system, it worked. Under his successors, it was corrected to offset inflation or to accommodate more officers and officials in the hierarchy. In addition to the recipients of state land grants (jagirdar), there were also the landlords designated by the collective term "zamindar". These could be subjugated petty kings, tribal chiefs, feudal holders from earlier regimes, etc. In principle, they were all obliged to pay property tax. But the administration was aware that there was often nothing to get from stubborn landlords. In principle, the property tax assessment required a land survey (zabt), but where that was not possible, the assessment could also be based on a flat-rate estimate (nasaq). Furthermore, the tax administration assumed that the assessed amount (jama) rarely matched the amount that was actually collected (hasil). For the preservation of the vast Mughal empire, it was essential that property tax was paid in cash. That made good coinage necessary. Experiments like the one that Sultan Tughluk had made with copper coins, the Mughals did not afford. The value of their silver rupee corresponded to the silver they contained. Silver bars could be brought to the mint at any time and were converted into coins there for a small fee. The only pronounced monetary policy measure of the Mughal administration was to accept silver rupees at their full face value only in the year they were minted by government agencies. Thereafter, a discount was calculated for each year. In this way an attempt was made to counteract the hoarding of coins and to stimulate their circulation. The speed of circulation was slow anyway, as it was determined by the annual agricultural cycle. Because India had no silver mines, the number of coins could not be increased at will. One was completely dependent on the supply 1. Akbar's administrative reform and religious policy 39 with silver through the maritime trade, which the Mughals therefore put no obstacles in the way. Even when the Europeans appeared in increasing numbers on India's coasts, they were welcomed because they brought silver with them. The Indian economy, coinage and taxation developed very positively under Akbar's rule. But he was also interested in maintaining religious peace in India. So he abolished the hated poll tax (jiziya) for non-Muslims. In this way he foregoed considerable tax revenues, but in this way acquired the loyalty of the Hindus, who of course continued to make up the vast majority of his subjects. In this sense, he also married a Rajput princess and did not force her to convert to Islam. Orthodox Muslims did not like this tolerance, but they were even more upset that Akbar presumed to pass binding judgments on matters of faith. According to the norms of Islamic scholars, the "pious sultan" had to adhere strictly to the Koran and leave it to those scholars to interpret it. Akbar claimed an independent spiritual authority based on a mystical experience that is said to have happened to him in 1578. In appealing to this authority, he even went so far as to proclaim his own religious doctrine, "Din-i-Illahi" (belief in God). However, this was not a doctrine to which he intended to convert the mass of the people, but rather an order into which he accepted selected greats from his empire. This reminded of the feudal incorporation strategies of which we were talking earlier. Of course, such "un-Islamic" tendencies of Orthodoxy were a nuisance. The practice of the Great Mughals of having portraits of rulers made with a halo was of course “un-Islamic”, because according to the Koran the representation of people is forbidden at all, not to mention the halo. But the Mughals were absolutist rulers. The Islamic scholars might express their criticism, but they could not change anything about these practices. The Hindu subjects naturally brought much more III. The Empire of the Mughals40 understanding of the “divine right” and the dynastic charisma of the Mughals. Akbar's long reign ended with his death in 1605. Already during his lifetime, his son Salim had risen against him, who then called himself the Mughal Mughal Jahangir. Such succession disputes divided the imperial elite, but while they were usually fatal for Mughal princes, the greats of the empire who had been on the wrong side were not brought to justice, but were confirmed in their offices by the victor, who was keen on his Consolidate domination. This resulted in a continuity in the management of offices. The high offices were in principle not hereditary, but the lists of the office holders show that the members of certain families can be found time and again in the high ranks of the imperial hierarchy. So one can almost speak of an official nobility of the Mughal Empire. 2. Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb Under Jahangir, whose beautiful wife Nur Jahan came from Persia, the influence of the Persian court culture, which was important to the Mughals anyway, increased. Persian was the official language of the empire, while Urdu developed as a popular language. Jahangir's son and successor Shah Jahan ("Lord of the World") was the greatest Mughal after Akbar. As his father's general, he had already distinguished himself through great conquests and expanded the power of the empire in southern India. Unfortunately, he did not have Akbar's foreign policy sense of proportion and embarked on the hopeless adventure of trying to recapture Ferghana. The Mughal army, led by Prince Aurangzeb, only got as far as Balkh and was ultimately unable to hold Kandahar. Aurangzeb accepted this as a lesson and, when he came to power, restricted his thirst for conquest to southern India. Shah Jahan was not only a bold general but also a great builder. The Taj Mahal in Agra, the mausoleum of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, and the Red Fort in his new 2. Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb 41 ner new capital Jahanabad (Old Delhi) are permanent testimonies of the Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan kept the Taj Mahal in mind as he spent the last years of his life imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb at the Agra Fort. Aurangzeb had risen against his father in Mughal fashion and eliminated his brother Dara Shikoh, in whom the Hindus had high hopes, for he had shown an interest in Hindu philosophy and had translated the Upanishads from Sanskrit into Persian. Aurangzeb, on the other hand, was a downright bigoted Muslim. He reintroduced the poll tax (jiziya) and was - as one would say today - a «fundamentalist». His almost uninterrupted military campaigns, however, placed an excessive burden on the state treasury. He perverted Akbar's cleverly calculated system of imperial hierarchy by increasing the ranks to accommodate the greats of the highlands he had conquered. However, the tax revenue of the barren highlands was out of proportion to the costs caused by the top-heavy nature of the system.To "compensate for inflation" he reduced the number of cavalrymen who had to maintain the officers according to their rank. He continued Akbar's system, but in this way undermined it. 3. The Rise of the Marathas Aurangzeb's worst enemies were the Marathas, a tribe of the highlands who successfully fought against the ponderous Mughal army with their guerrilla strategy. Their leader Shivaji also built a number of impregnable fortresses on the steep table mountains of the highlands. Aurangzeb paid him no attention at first, but when Shivaji dared to pillage Surat, the main port of the Mughal Empire, in 1664, a large army was deployed against him. He had to bow to the Mughal power and accept a dictated peace that obliged him to hand over a large part of his fortresses and to appear at court, where III. The Empire of the Mughals42 Aurangzeb offered him a low rank (500) in the imperial hierarchy. But Shivaji could not be bought and fled from Delhi back to the highlands. There he introduced a high property tax assessment in order to have funds for new ventures. The farmers had to deliver half of the harvest, but were also given government credit to increase their production. Shivaji was solemnly crowned king in 1674 with all Hindu ceremonies. He died in 1680, but his son Sambhaji continued the resistance against the Mughal Empire. He received unexpected support when Aurangzeb's son Akbar rose against him and sought refuge at Sambhaji. With the support of the Hindus, he wanted to become a mogul and to resume the tolerant policies of his ancestor of the same name. Had he succeeded, the history of the Mughal Empire would have been different. But Aurangzeb defeated him. Akbar fled to Persia, where he died a few years later. But Sambhaji was cruelly tortured to death at Aurangzeb's behest. Aurangzeb now moved his capital to Aurangabad in order to be able to fight his archenemies at close range. He also conquered the sultanates of Bijapur and Golkonda. As a young prince, Aurangzeb had been viceroy of the highlands and even then might have forged ambitious plans to annex the sultanates. In old age he was able to realize these plans. He died in 1707 at the age of 89. His son Muazzam, who succeeded him to the throne, was already 63 years old and could no longer stop the collapse of the empire. Not only the great enemies of the empire, but also rebellious peasants troubled him, who drove out the tax collectors of the Grand Mogul with muskets made in the country. Edicts against the peasants' possession of weapons provide information about this development. Muazzam, who called himself the Mughal Mughal Bahadur Shah, tried to make peace with the Marathas by appointing Shahu, the grandson of Shivaji, who grew up hostage at Aurangzeb's court, as Raja of Satara, but with it 3. The Rise of the Marathas 43 he gave the resistance of the Marathas a new center. Shahu was not a warrior, but he was a clever diplomat. He left the affairs of government to a capable majordomo (peshwa), the Brahmin Balaji Viswanath, whose family, like the shoguns in Japan, had actual power in the state in the following years. When Balaji died in 1720, his son Baji Rao, who was only 19 years old, became Peshwa and soon proved to be a daring warrior who even stormed Delhi with his troops. He withdrew immediately afterwards, but established his power in the area south of Delhi, where his military leaders Scindia, Gaekwad and Holkar later became Maharajas of Gwalior, Baroda and Indore. The young Peshwa Baji Rao was not only bold but also smart and calculating. The vizier of the Mughal Empire had to find out, whose large army defeated Baji Rao twice, but then let them go for a large ransom each time. So Baji Rao had enough money to pay his troops and he was spared the fate of many famous Indian generals, who won battles but then had to experience that their troops ran away because they owed them their wages. When the vizier once again met Baji Rao with a large contingent of the best Mughal troops in 1739, the Persian Nadir Shah seized the opportunity and attacked Delhi. He stole the famous peacock throne of the Mughals and many of their treasures and retreated back to Persia with his booty. Baji Rao, who defeated the vizier, had him transfer control of all areas south of Delhi that he had conquered in the name of the Grand Mogul. After that, not much was left of the Mughal Empire. The vizier drew the conclusions from this, turned his back on Delhi for good and founded the dynasty of the Nizams of Haiderabad in the south. Other greats of the empire followed suit and became practically independent rulers of the provinces of which they were governors. They kept the title Nawab (governor) and recognized the symbolic sovereignty of the Grand Mogul. III. The Empire of the Mughals44 4. The Indian Powers in the 18th Century The 18th century had "bad press" for a long time. Historians described it as a time of decay that inevitably led to the loss of India's freedom. Recent research has shown that economically at least there was nothing to complain about in the first half of the century. Silver flowed abundantly into the country, and foreign demand stimulated industrial production. The resurgence of regional powers was also not unusual in itself. A new balance of power could well have arisen in India. As once after the collapse of the Gupta empire, a common style of rule was widespread everywhere. The practice of the Mughal administration, but also the type of military armament, were copied everywhere. Of course, the flourishing money economy also promoted the “commercialization of power”. At many courts of regional rulers, wealthy merchants had real power in the state. They were often involved as tax tenants in large areas and even took over the financial management of the rulers who were indebted to them. A large military labor market offered anyone with the money the opportunity to recruit mercenaries. The British East India Company fitted in well with this pattern. Great Britain had seen a "commercialization of power" as early as the 17th century, and the East India Company was an integral part of that development. So it fitted into the Indian political landscape. In contrast to the Indian rulers, who each acted for themselves, the East India Company was a modern organization that stored information and, so to speak, had a collective memory. That made up the real superiority of the East India Company. It did not have a military superiority through better armament. All contemporary weapons were available in India, only the way they were used was decisive. In this area the Europeans in India made a virtue of necessity. They had only a few cavalry available and left 4. The Indian powers in the 18th century therefore relied on infantry, which had only recently been introduced in Europe, and which fired one volley after the other with precision, thus undoing oncoming riders . A few European drill sergeants were enough to turn Indian mercenaries into modern infantrymen. In the few years from 1757 to 1764, four battles that were unrelated to one another and took place in theaters of war that were far apart determined the further course of Indian history. The first of these battles was more of a skirmish than a major battle, and it was decided by treason rather than military superiority. It was the Battle of Plassey (1757) in which Robert Clive defeated the Nawab of Bengal. Clive had come to Madras as a young scribe for the East India Company and became famous in one fell swoop in 1751 when he successfully defended the city of Arcot against overwhelming odds. He was sent to Bengal with a contingent of East India Company troops when the young Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daula, attacked Calcutta. The East India Company had established its branch in Calcutta without the permission of the Nawab. This demanded the razing of the fortress. When the British refused, he occupied Calcutta, but was soon driven out by Clive, who followed him to Plassey. Clive had made a secret deal with the minister, Mir Jafar, who then defected to the British with his troops in battle. Siraj-ud-Daula was killed and Clive installed Mir Jafar as the new nawab of Bengal. The impotent Mughal in distant Delhi, who had not received a tax share from the Nawabs for a long time, offered Clive the "Diwani" (civil administration) of Bengal. Clive advocated that this position should not be taken on in the name of the East India Company, but of the British Crown. Under the terms of the Society's royal charter, any conquests fell to the crown. But the British Prime Minister William Pitt, who feared that King George III., The already absolutist inclination. The Empire of the Mughals46 had been able to emancipate itself from the control of the British Parliament with the income from Bengal, rejected the plan and Clive was initially not allowed to take over the "Diwani". Three years after the Battle of Plassey, British royal troops defeated the troops of the French East India Company, founded in 1664, at the Battle of Wandiwash near Madras, thereby putting an end to their power in India. This battle was related to the global clashes between Great Britain and France, which reached from America to India and were decided in favor of Great Britain in the Peace of Aachen in 1763. The Battle of Wandiwash had little to do with what was happening in India. It was a European conflict on Indian soil, of course fought by Indian mercenaries who were deployed on both sides. The French Governor General Dupleix had pioneered the recruiting and training of Indian infantry troops. The British then quickly followed his example. The troops that were defeated in Wandiwash were not subordinate to him, but to an arrogant General Lally, who was not at all familiar with India, who had been dispatched directly from France and was held responsible and executed on his return. Dupleix didn't lose his life, but his job. The French East India Company was initially dissolved and the field was completely left to the British. The third battle, which took place in 1761 on the traditional battlefield of Panipat north of Delhi, must now be considered against this background. The British and the French had nothing to do with it. A large army of the Marathas met the Afghan conqueror Ahmad Shah Durrani, who, like Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded India on periodic raids without being permanently involved there. The battle, which involved a far greater use of troops than that of Plassey and Wandiwash, ended in a victory for Ahmad Shah. But both adversaries withdrew 4. The Indian powers in the 18th century 47, Ahmad Shah to Afghanistan and the Marathas to the south. This created a power vacuum that benefited the British. In this context, the fourth battle of Baxar in Bihar in 1764, in which the combined armies of the Grand Mogul and the Nawab of Bengal were defeated by the British, was of importance. Mir Jafar had meanwhile been replaced by Mir Kasim as Nawab of Bengal, and he had fallen out with the British, who had completely exploited him. The defeated Mughal now offered the British the "Diwani" of Bengal again, and Clive finally took it over on behalf of the East India Company, as Pitt continued to consider a takeover by the Crown to be inadvisable. Thus the basis for the establishment of a territorial state was laid by a trading company. Even if this development can be described as decisive in retrospect, it hardly impressed the great regional powers of India at the time. In their young Peshwa Madhav Rao I, the Marathas once again had a general from the Baji Raos range. He remarked very aptly that the British had put a ring around India with their sea power, but he could not break this ring and had to deal with a challenger who was keeping the whole of South India in suspense at this time. It was the usurper Haider Ali who, in 1761, wrested power from his master, the Maharaja of Mysore, and organized a very effective army in a short time. He had learned from the Europeans and acquired infantry based on their example. He was a French military adviser and established an efficient state administration. He was and remained an equestrian general, but he was careful not to get his cavalry into the line of fire of the infantry. Madhav Rao I was a dangerous opponent for him. He was defeated several times by him, but then Madhav Rao died in 1767. Now Haider Ali had a free hand and was able to defy the British who fought against him in league with the Nizam of Haiderabad. Haider Ali appeared in front of Madras as early as 1769 and forced a dictated peace on the British, which was very favorable to him. III. The Empire of the Mughals48 After Haider Ali's death (1780), he was followed by his equally capable son Tipu Sultan, who became the greatest challenger for the British, against whom they had to wage three wars. It was not until the third war in 1799 that he was finally defeated and killed. Tipu Sultan had allied himself with the French and was therefore betting on the wrong map. He was even an admirer of the French Revolution and had founded a Jacobin Club in his capital, whose members were allowed to address him as "Citoyen Tipu". This was arguably the strangest incorporation strategy in Indian history. Tipu's alliance with the French gave the British in India the excuse to justify their costly war efforts against him to the Directory in London, which always urged thrift. The French threat, which the British in India did not take particularly seriously, provided a convincing argument that made a great impression in distant London. When Tipu Sultan fell, the Marathas remained as a threat to British power. They overcame it by entering into treaties with the Maharajas of Gwalior, Baroda, and Indore that enabled them to survive in the British-Indian Empire. However, the Peshwas continued to be the bearers of resistance. Their power was finally broken in 1818. In the meantime, however, the British had one last adversary: ​​Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the leader of the Sikhs in the Panjab. Like Tipu Sultan, he knew how to organize a modern army. American artillery officers were in his service. He was able to withstand British power until his death in 1839. But once, when he was shown a map with all British conquests marked in red, he said that everything would soon be red. He had estimated that correctly, because among his weak successors, his empire also fell victim to the British. 4. The Indian Powers in the 18th Century 49