What are the roles of a coach

The coach in team sports - tasks and requirements

Children and adolescents

Numerous team sports differentiate the age groups of children according to class, which means that different training requirements are associated with them. Differentiations are possible according to gender, life classes, performance classes (leagues), weight classes, body size and types of sports equipment.

The performance class structure varies depending on the sport from very subdivided systems that have six or more classes to single-class systems in the adult area. In team sports, a distinction is made primarily through the membership of the teams in certain leagues, whereas in individual sports there are often different performance classes. There is always a top category and graded categories with weaker athletes.

One possibility is the classification of the juniors in the two-year system (in some sports also one year), in which the year of birth decides:

U 11under 11 years
U 1311 to under 13 years
U 1513 to under 15 years
U 1715 to under 17 years
U 1917 to under 19 years
U 2319 to under 23 years

The age groups over 18 years of age can also take part in regular competitions for adults, but through the separate competitions they have the option of gradually being brought up to an international level of performance.

The age groups, which are designated as F to A youth, differ from sport to sport. In fencing, for example, 14-17-year-olds are grouped together in the A-youth group; in handball or athletics, these are the 17- to 19-year-old athletes.

F and E youth

Physical constitution

Children who start a team sport in the F-youth usually have to join a team for the first time and compete with their peers. The physical differences between girls and boys are small, and the interaction with one another is relaxed, so that the training is often mixed-sex. You have a great joy in movement and play and are enthusiastic about competing with others. They tire quickly, but quickly recover. A physical overload is almost impossible. You have poor concentration, a minimal sense of time and space, poorly developed muscles and coordination problems. The orientation towards adult role models is particularly great in this age group. Parents are the most important caregivers whose role a trainer temporarily takes on.

Training content

In training, the focus is less on imparting specific techniques, but on various games to improve coordination and stamina, as well as promoting team spirit and self-confidence. This works best through a sense of achievement through games with opponents of equal strength and smaller training games. A lack of coordination in particular is due to insufficient support in the early years of life. Accordingly, the training should be based on the following principles:

  • Learning a variety of relatively simple forms of movement
  • targeted expansion of the range of motion
  • versatile and varied tasks
  • Learn everyday movements, trunk controls and slow simultaneous movements

In early school age, the memory is not yet developed, so that exercises have to be repeated in order to be permanently anchored in the memory. In addition to the ability to react, spatial differentiation and coordination under time pressure, the ability to balance and dexterity form special skills, especially for girls.

The role of the coach

The trainer has a particularly great influence as a role model on these children and thus also on their personal development. Accordingly, he should exemplify sporting and social justice and, for example, also demonstrate fairness in the event of defeat. He does not prefer any of the children in training, helps each individual by making positive corrections if necessary and teaches rules such as punctuality and tidying up.

A trainer should take the following principles as the basis of his practice: Pay attention to language that is appropriate for children, use facial expressions and gestures and never save on praise! The attractiveness of exercises can be increased through motivating formulations (“Who can ...?”) And competitions. Do not make instructions and joint meetings too long (maximum 10 minutes) and give precise instructions.

In tournaments and competitions, give the children courage before the game. Cheering positively during the game, but avoiding too many outside instructions and reassuring parents who interfere with heckling during the game or criticize the referee.

Training process

No specific warm-up program is required in training; children of this age can move around immediately, so that the lesson begins with easy-to-understand catching and ball games. In the main part of the training, motivating games and exercises, which impart knowledge of the basic techniques, are more important than monotonous technical exercises! The priority is to correspond to the children's urge to move, and small competitions can always be integrated. Avoid impatience.

D youth

Physical constitution

The D-youth age is considered to be the “golden age of learning”, since the willingness to accept new and complex contexts (e.g. tactics, creativity in play) is very high. The ability to concentrate has improved, tactical characteristics are recorded and a physical and psychological balance is present; Motor control, rhythm and responsiveness have increased as well as the spatial and temporal differentiation before the onset of puberty follows. This is accompanied by, for example, physical complaints such as bone pain and a low load-bearing capacity of the spine. In addition to self-confidence, the children also develop a pronounced sense of justice. They form their own opinions and are critical of other opinions, which leads to disputes with the trainer and the parents.

Training content

In training, the focus is on having fun in the sport. Basic techniques are systematically consolidated, used in different game situations and supplemented with tactical basics. Positive personality traits such as motivation, independence and commitment can be promoted in this phase.

The role of the coach

The coach continues to act as a role model, although conflicts arise with the players. Accordingly, he slightly distances himself from the children and builds up authority. The children are ready to take on their first tasks and responsibility. The training requires adequate preparation, and the trainer also holds a parents' evening at least twice a year.

Training process

The lessons begin with warm-up exercises and games, which are used to train various techniques, coordination or motivation. The actual training is determined by a technical-tactical focus, which is studied through various forms of play and exercise.


Physical constitution

In the C and the subsequent B youth, phases of puberty follow, with which there are often physical and mental opportunities as well as problems that trainers should take into account. In this phase, the focus is usually on belonging and identity with a group - and with it the search for joint sporting success. It can make perfect sense to turn a blind eye to pubertal behavior problems and focus on team cohesion - through barbecues or excursions. At the same time, there is a separation from the parental home, so that conflicts with authorities are the order of the day.

Training content

The training is primarily aimed at improving the children's performance level, i. In other words, the conditional and coordinative requirements increase. The speed of the game is in the foreground in order to increase the technical level. Due to the low stimulus threshold of adolescents in their puberty, fairness is just as important a rule as discipline.

The role of the coach

In view of the relevance of identity, it is the task of the coach to consider and develop the skills of the individual, to reduce weaknesses and also to bring weaker players closer to the team level. Due to the difficult phase of the young people, sufficient patience, authority and sufficient linguistic competence are required. The coach promotes the individual players as personalities and develops team spirit at the same time. The training is well prepared and based on appropriate specialist knowledge.

B and A youth

Physical constitution

In the course of the B youth, the adolescents are usually largely out of puberty and are more psychologically balanced again. The body proportions also harmonize, the body is stronger, coordination and comprehension increase. The young people strive for recognition and independence. The detachment from the parental home is complete, and the young person has now positioned himself in the event of a conflict. The players accept guidelines, but seek discussion if they do not agree.

Training content

In training, technical and tactical skills can be further developed and special focus areas can be trained. The players adapt to the growing competition conditions and learn a dynamic style of play.

The role of the coach

On the personal level, the strengthening of self-confidence and co-responsibility are the focal points of the trainer's work. Due to the need to develop the players adequately, the coach must be well trained. He is able to make the training varied and to plan it long-term; has the authority to point out clear boundaries and to enforce them. To do this, rhetorical skills are essential. The coach promotes the individual and the team as a whole.

Training process

The constantly varying warm-up phase of the training serves to systematically increase the exercise requirements and, in addition to ball exercises for technical training, also includes stretching and strengthening exercises for muscle building. The main part of the lesson consists of a single technical-tactical focus in various forms of play and exercise. The individual exercises are performance-challenging and alternate between intensive, stressful units and active recovery phases. Variations increase concentration and comprehension for certain game situations.

Adults (Seniors / Masters)

With the transition into adulthood, leadership of people and teams within team sports is becoming increasingly important. In addition to work and family, the activity is important as a leisure activity, whereby family members can also be included in the club's activity. The players should behave in an exemplary manner towards children and young people within the club.

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