Islam allows annual rituals of the dead
- 1st month: Tishri (September / October):
Rosh Hashanah (1st - 2nd Tischri)
This is the New Year celebrations. It is celebrated on two days, the 1st and 2nd Tishri. The month of Tishri is from September to October. Here both the creation of the world is celebrated and God's jurisdiction over human beings is commemorated. People look back over the past year and go into themselves. According to the Jewish idea, God sits as a judge over people during the “reverent days” and decides about life and death, health and illness with a view to the coming year. The outstanding symbol of this period is the shofar, the ram's horn, as its tones urge people to turn back to God.
The Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, closes the so-called “reverent days” that began with the New Year.
On this highest Jewish holiday, people do not eat and drink for 25 hours and concentrate completely on prayer in the synagogue.
Sukkot (15th - 21st Tischri)
Sukkot is the festival of tabernacles. The huts are reminiscent of the makeshift dwellings in which the children of Israel lived during their migration from Egypt to Canaan.
Simchat Torah (23rd Tishri)
Simchat Torah is the "Torah Joy Feast". On this day the annual cycle of Torah readings ends and a new cycle begins.
- 3rd month: Kislew (November / December)
Hanukkah (25th Kislev - 2nd Tevet)
The eight-day festival of lights commemorates the historic victory of the Jewish Maccabees over the Syrian-Greek regime. 164 BC, the Jerusalem temple was recaptured by the Maccabees and consecrated for the traditional temple rite with the lighting of the six-armed chandelier, the menorah. Hanukkah marks this rededication of the temple. The symbol of this was the Hanukkiah, the eight-armed candlestick: the kosher oil required to light the menorah miraculously lasted for eight days instead of a single one and thus gave sufficient time to produce new kosher oil. To commemorate this, Jews light another Hanukkiah light every evening on Hanukkah until all eight candles of the candlestick are lit on the eighth day of the festival.
- 4th month: Tewet (December / January)
Fast 10th Tewet (10th Tewet)
Fast day commemorating the siege of Yeruzhalayim (Jerusalem) by the Babylonians.
- 5th month: Schwat (January / February)
Do BiSchwat (15th Schwat)
This is the "New Year of the Trees". In ancient times, the consumption of tree fruits was governed by special rules that depended on the day they were planted. The fruits of a tree remained untouched in the first three years, in the fourth year they were brought to the Jerusalem temple and were only allowed to be eaten from the following year. Since the “date of birth” of all trees was not known, the 15th Schwat, or Tu BiSchwat in Hebrew, became “New Year's Day of the Trees”.
Today it is the custom to eat the so-called "seven kinds" with which the land of Israel is blessed. These are wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates. In Israel itself, it is a tradition at Tu BiSchwat to plant seedlings. It also stands for the awakening of nature in spring and a commitment to the environment.
- 6th month: Adar (February / March)
Purim (14th Adar)
Purim commemorates the salvation of the Persian Jews as it is narrated in the biblical book of Esther. After the exile of the queen, the Jewish orphan Esther took her place on the Persian throne as her successor. The situation of the Persian Jews becomes threatening when the royal minister Haman initiates a conspiracy against them: on a day set by throwing away (Akkadian Pur, hence the name Purim), all Jews of the Persian Empire are to be exterminated. Informed of this plan through her foster father Mordechai, Queen Esther was able to prevent evil and save the Jews.
Based on the Esther story, today it is necessary to fast on the day before Purim (fasting Ester). While reading the Ester scroll in the synagogue, the old and especially the young make a row at the sound of the name Hamans. In addition to a feast, the festive customs include sending gifts to acquaintances and the destitute.
- 7th month: Nissan (March / April)
Passover (15th - 22nd Nissan)
Passover, literally the “Feast of Crossing”, recalls the bondage of the Jews in Egypt, the “crossing” of Jewish houses by the Angel of Death during the tenth plague and the exodus under Moshe. This festival is significant for Jews because it is associated with the voluntary orientation to God's commandments and the change to a people with their own country.
The Passover festival is introduced by two Seder evenings. The sequence of these evenings is based on a given order (Hebrew seder), at the heart of which is a ritual meal, which is framed by the Haggadah, the story of the Exodus from Egypt, and many songs. Avoid eating any leavened foods during the eight-day festival. As a result, matzah, unleavened bread, became particularly well known.
Yom Hashoah (27.Nissan)
Remembrance day for the victims of the Holocaust.
- 8th month: Ijar (November / December)
Yom HaAzmaut (5th Ijar)
Yom HaAzmaut commemorates the day on which in 1948 David Ben Gurion proclaimed the independence of the modern state of Israel. With the founding of the state, a historical circle closes for Jews, which actually only does justice to the concept of return, as they are returning to statehood in the territory that was essential for their original history.
Lag BaOmer (18th Ijar)
Celebration in memory of the end of an epidemic in ancient times.
Yom Yerushalayim (28th Ijar)
This day commemorates the reunification of Jerusalem in 1967.
- 9th month: Siwan (May / June)
Shavuot (6th-7th Siwan)
“Festival of Weeks”: Festival in memory of the presentation of the Torah seven weeks after the exodus from Egypt.
- 10th month: Tamus (June / July)
Fast 17. Tamus (17th Tamus)
Fast day commemorating the Roman siege of Jerusalem.
- 11th month: Aw (July / August)
Fast 9. Aw (9. Aw)
Fast day commemorating the destruction of the two temples.
- 12th month: Elul (August / September)
There are no Jewish festivals this month.
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