Why we judge people educationally
Assessment as an educational form of action
Table of Contents
2. Assessment - a pedagogical form of action?
3. Assess in school
3.1 The concept of performance
3.2 Assessment functions
3.3 Performance Evaluation - Problems and Consequences
4. Future of Judging
5. Conclusion - an assessment
This term paper is about one of the most discussed pedagogical forms of action: judging. Here in particular at school, through the teacher. At the beginning it is necessary to define what is meant by judging as an educational form of action. In the following chapter I will deal with the practical field of action of this activity in order to first offer an insight into practice and then to offer a look into the future of this educational activity.
Why is it so important to see this form of action in practice? By dealing with the practice of judgment, it is possible to better understand the actual action and how it works. The everyday school life of teachers and students offers the best opportunity for this. Assessments are not only made at school, but also in the area of personnel management. However, since this would lead too far, this field of practice is not considered any further.
The school, as a decisive place of judgment, offers a wide range of functions, problems and criticism. If one wants to understand how assessment works as a pedagogical form of action in school, one must at the same time, again and again, look at the functioning of the school as an institution. In the following, the work will attempt to show what it means to assess students as a teacher. There is always room for purposeful pedagogical action, Ä [...] this room for maneuver cannot be constructed in the mind of the educator, but also results from the 'counter-action' of others. "1It is therefore hardly possible to consider a form of action such as judgment outside of its field of activity.
2. Assessment - a pedagogical form of action?
At the beginning of this term paper, conceptual questions should be clarified. What is an educational form of action? And what makes judging such a thing? According to Hermann Giesecke, judgment is not a classic educational form of action2. But what is it now, pedagogical action? In short, it means certain practices and behaviors that are educational in nature. This is how parents act in an educational way when they teach their children the language or teach them how to use soap and water. They raise their child to be a responsible member of society. According to Pestalozzi, we can speak of a 'universal care function' of the parents here3. Not only parents act pedagogically, but also schools and other bodies. All of life is permeated with these particular ways of doing things. Everyone has certainly already acted pedagogically (e.g. as a babysitter) and everyone has already been subject to such actions (e.g. in school as a student). "Action becomes or is pedagogical [...] because it relates to learning and tries to determine it."4This definition of the term does not contain any evaluation. Educational action does not have to be good, bad, beneficial, fair, or successful. Actions of this kind can also be negatively affected, let's think, for example, of parents who beat up their children for educational reasons.
But what makes judging an educational act? According to Prange's definition in the previous lines, this activity must be related to learning. Judging is probably the pedagogical form of action. It permeates everyday school life and forms the basis for one of the main functions of the school (selection). This activity evaluates the learning of students and tries to influence it. Hence it is always determinative in one way or another. In order to be able to carry out an assessment, two criteria are generally required: Ä [...] namely a criterion by which something can be measured and a yardstick that specifies how it is measured. "5There are three ways of measuring a student's learning performance: thematic, individual and social6.7The first two are suitable for making it clear to the teaching staff where individual students stand in their level of knowledge, or to find out where the deficits and the need to catch up are. However, grades are rarely given after an individual's performance improvement. Rather, one acts according to the third method, i.e. the social one. The class level is the decisive factor for the individual awarding of grades.
ÄIt is usually assumed that the benefits would have to be based on the normal distribution; i.e. >> exhaust the range of grades << and have the greatest frequency with the middle value. "8
However, this raises the question of equal opportunities. If the grade of a student is measured against the values of the class, how can an average grade be a decisive criterion for the further development of this individual? At school, grades are graded from one to six (in the upper level then with the 15 point system). From a statistical point of view, we then speak of an ordinal scale. That means that you create a kind of ranking of the values. So grade one is worth more than grade three. In principle, this range of grades is quite sufficient. It shows where each student is and how well the material was received by the class. The problem, however, is the calculation scale (interval)9. Although this is the average of performance assessments, the ratio of the grades cannot be assessed.
What does the Abitur average 3.1 say about the student K.? Was she lazy? Or completely too stupid? Certainly not that there was a chance she was in a good class. Or it says nothing about the quality of the teaching staff. Reducing a student to a bare number says nothing about him as an individual. Amazingly, however, the pure grades are more interesting for students than the written assessments on the school year report.10
1Giesecke, Hermann: Education as a Profession. Basic forms of educational action. Weinheim - Munich 2010, p. 21.
2Giesecke's forms of action include: teaching, advising, informing, animating and arranging. (Compare: Gisecke, p. 76.)
3Compare: Prange, Klaus / Strobel - Eisele, Gabriele: The Forms of Educational Action - An Introduction. Stuttgart 2006, p. 12.
5Faulstich, Peter / Faulstich-Wieland, Hannelore: BA - Study of Educational Science - A textbook. Reinbeck near Hamburg 2006, p. 76.
6Thematically, one tries to set standards for the material taught in order to know how well something has to be done. Individual means that you look at the learning progress of the individual student and judge it according to learning progress. Social refers to the level of knowledge of the class. Here the performance of the students is compared with that of the others in order to determine a relative level of performance. (See Faulstich, p. 76)
7See Faulstich, p. 76.
8Ibid. P. 76.
9Compare: Ibid. P. 77.
10Compare: Ibid. P.79.
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