What are the types of CCTV camera
CCTV Lexicon: Terms and abbreviations from video surveillance technology
, but so that this page can still be found easily, we leave it at the old name for the time being ...
The different manufacturers of video systems sometimes use different terms for the same things or understand something different under the same term.
In order to contribute to a better understanding, we have explained some terms below as they are familiar to us and as we understand them, whereby we cannot and do not want to rule out that, depending on the context, some terms are also used differently elsewhere.
We are grateful for additions and correction tips!
AK picture (Image transfer working group): Work in this working group
- Police representative,
- of the BHE (Federal Association of Manufacturers and Installers of Security Systems)
- of the BDWS (Federal Association of German Guard and Security Companies)
- and the ZVEI (Central Association of the Electrical and Electronics Industry)
The AK picture has meanwhile been renamed → KA picture.
A alarm is an event that requires an immediate response, for example from an → emergency and service control center.
Alarm system (see also → GMA, → EMA): The various alarm sources (infrared motion detectors, hold-up buttons, glass break sensors, door contacts, light barriers, ...) are evaluated here in the → protected object. If the alarm system is armed, which usually happens automatically when the object is locked, all alarm events are reported to the responsible control center. Video surveillance can then be used to further evaluate such events. Ideally, the → AMS in the control center automatically requests the video image that matches the alarm event from the → VMS. For this purpose, e.g. the control protocol → AMS_RCP is used.
The Alarm image is the picture taken when the alarm was triggered. If there is no image available at the exact time of the alarm, the next one is used. If the distance between the time of the alarm and the next available image is too great, this is not suitable as an alarm image. How large this tolerance may be depends on the application.
Alarm management system (AMS): Receives → events from various sources (e.g. from an → EMA or → GMA) and reacts to them according to previously defined priorities and → action plans.
AMS see → Alarm Management System
AMS_RCP is the short name for that Alarm Management System Remote Control Protocol. Via this interface, video feeds can be controlled automatically depending on a certain dangerous situation ("situation") recognized in the → AMS.
This supports a quick assessment of the situation, which enables the intervention forces to be deployed in a targeted manner.
ARC (Alarm Receiving Center) is the English name for an alarm receiving center, i.e. a control center that receives alarm events and reacts to them according to defined → action plans.
There is partly an overlap with the term → emergency call and service control center, which also includes services that go beyond mere alarm reception.
AS-POL (Police alarm station): The police station is permanently manned and receives hazard reports and supporting information (e.g. video images) and initiates intervention measures. The → ÜEA guideline defines, among other things, the requirements for image transmission to the AS-POL.
ATM is the abbreviation for "Asynchronous Transfer Mode" and describes a network technology that combines classic telecommunications services and new services such as video streaming and LAN coupling with assured quality of service (QoS) in a common standard.
Technically, ATM has many parallels to ISDN, but supports much higher data rates (e.g. 155 Mbit / s on STM-1) and is therefore often also called broadband ISDN. In contrast to ISDN (isochronous), ATM works in a packet-oriented manner: With ATM, the data is transmitted in packets of a fixed length, each with 5 bytes of address information ("header") and 48 bytes of user data ("payload").
ATM is compatible with the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH in Europe and SONET in the USA). As a result, ATM is of great importance in the backbone area, while in the terminal area, despite poorer QoS features, the cheaper Ethernet is more likely to prevail.
Audio is often a useful addition to video because, for example, a dangerous situation can be recognized and assessed more quickly if it is perceived not only with the eye (optically, visually) but also with the ear (acoustically) in the control center, or by being aware of people be able to give targeted warnings via loudspeaker announcements in a danger area recognized by video.
Many video systems available on the market contain audio functions of varying extents and quality.
A distinction must be made between audio unidirectional (= only in one direction, e.g. from the monitored object to the control center, i.e. you can listen to the object but not speak to the people located there) and audio bidirectional (= in both directions).
In the latter, a distinction is made between Two-way talk and Intercom:
In the case of two-way communication, the microphone and loudspeaker are acoustically decoupled to such an extent that no feedback can occur, e.g. by means of a hands-free device or a headset (headphones with a microphone attached). Under this condition, both sides (object and control center) can speak and hear at the same time.
If, on the other hand, the loudspeaker also acts on the microphone (as it is structurally impossible to do otherwise in many situations), people can only speak or hear alternately (= two-way speaking), because otherwise a feedback loop would arise, which would lead to an unpleasant continuous tone. Switching between the two operating modes ("speaking", listening ") takes place in the control center using a microphone button or a corresponding button in the video management software (" push-to-talk button ", PTT).
If conversations are to be conducted using this function (e.g. as an aid to a person in front of a pay machine by an employee in the video control center), then, in addition to good speech intelligibility, a low → latency period is important, because otherwise both parties to the conversation will have longer breaks due to transmission be tempted to speak at once.
As an alternative to audio transmission using existing video systems, the audio functionality can also be implemented using an intercom system coupled to the video system via an interface or using → VoIP.
resolution: Number of significant (= information-carrying) pixels of the displayed image in the horizontal (x-) and vertical (y-) direction.
recording (Eng. record) is the opposite of → playback: Images are transferred from an → image source to a → image memory and kept there for later retrieval.
Detail enlargement → Digital zoom
A Tender should define the requirements and boundary conditions of a → project as part of the tendering process Completely and clearly Define, but not stipulate, how and with what means the task will be fulfilled, because otherwise one would obstruct solutions that the advertising agency was not yet aware of at the time of the advertisement, but which lead to an overall more economically favorable result. In this respect, the tender is similar to the → specification sheet.
On this basis, various providers can then submit their different proposed solutions, from which the advertising agency can choose the offer that is most advantageous for them.
In this context, cheap should not be confused with cheap: Some solutions that are inexpensive to purchase result in high follow-up costs if quality, functionality, user-friendliness, service, support, training, maintenance, updates, flexible adjustments to new requirements, etc. not true.
Therefore, when evaluating the offers, not only the acquisition costs but all costs associated with the operation of the desired solution over the entire intended term ("service life") must be considered (total cost of ownership (TCO)).
Since the security industry is mostly about long-term purchases that are to be used for many years and gradually expanded, the subject of "investment protection" or "investment security" must be taken into account: Anyone who makes themselves dependent on just one hardware supplier becomes If extensions are required later, they are often asked to pay too much, or the hardware installed at the beginning of the project can no longer be procured after a few years if replacements or extensions are necessary.
Therefore, it is very important to ensure that the solution is not tied to a specific manufacturer of a specific hardware, but that it can be freely selected from the range available on the market, even in the event of later expansions or replacement purchases. Manufacturer-independent video management solutions such as EBÜS make this possible.
Here you will find text modules for tendering a video surveillance system.
The Motion detection is a simple form of → video content analysis that detects changes in the video images and then triggers predefined actions. In order to avoid false alarms, the motion detection should be suitably parameterized or combined with other sensors.
BEZ (Image receiving center): Device for receiving and evaluating images from video surveillance systems. → EBÜS is a BEZ recognized by the police in accordance with the → ÜEA guideline.
In the → BHE Federal Association for Safety Technology e.V. Numerous installers, manufacturers and planners of security systems work together. All questions relating to the topic of → video security systems are dealt with in the → Video Technical Committee.
Picture note (Image rating, Image comment, Image description) represents a simple form of → metadata: A text can be stored here for each individual stored video image, which is displayed and printed out together with the image. These texts can also be searched for and a desired image can be called up in this way.
Frame rate (Frame rate): Number of images displayed / saved per second; usually given in "fps" (frames per second).
Image source (also Image sender or Video transmission device (VÜG) called): A device with which the images are fed into the digital network. Typical image sources are, for example: The corresponding English term is → "Network Video Transmitter" (NVT).
Image sources are the "suppliers", → image sinks are the "consumers" of video images.
Image sources are where video images from the real world are recorded, image sinks where these images are required for the desired function.
Image sources and image sinks are connected to one another via the network.
A direct data transmission from an image source to an image sink is called a "live connection".
Image sender is another name for → image source
A Image sink is the matching counterpart to the → image source.
The images leave the digital network at image sinks and are made available in the real world in the required form.
Examples of image sinks are
- → Video decoder with a connected monitor
- Video software on a PC that can be used to display video images
- a printer that can print video images
- an external data carrier on which video images are exported or permanently archived
Image storage can be implemented in the following forms In addition to these "active" recording devices specially developed for video, certain → image sources can also automatically save their images on commercially available IT technology storage media and thus upgrade them to image storage:
- File server, e.g. implemented as Network Attached Storage (NAS)
- FTP server
- CF cards
A data retrieval from the image memory to an image sink is called "research".
Broadcast means that something is sent to everyone, as in the case of "broadcasting". In the context of → IP networks, see → -cast.
CAPI is the abbreviation for "Common Application Programming Interface", the standard programming interface for software that is to access → ISDN.
The current version is CAPI 2.0.
With -cast the 3 possible variants of data delivery within the framework of the → Internet Protocol (IP) end:
- Unicast: The data of a sender are sent to exactly one recipient. This is the most common form of data delivery. If several recipients want to receive the same data from the same sender via unicast, the sender has to send the data several times, which is very inefficient with a large number of recipients and can overload the sender.
- Broadcast: The data of a sender are sent to all recipients of a network segment, regardless of whether a recipient needs the data or not. This means that data can be distributed in the network segment without the sender having to know the individual recipients. Application example: A VMS wants to query all image sources available in the network segment in order to be able to contact them. Broadcast is only permitted and possible within a network segment, because otherwise the entire network would be flooded with such data. Broadcast is like distributing with a watering can and is not suitable for efficient video data transmission.
- Multicast: The data of a sender are sent to a recipient group. Each member of the recipient group subscribes to the data of a sender by registering with the network as a group member with a special group ID via → IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol). The sender only has to send the data once, the distribution to the subscribers is done by the active network components (switches, routers). The data sent via multicast can also be routed across network segment boundaries, provided that multicast-capable routers couple the network segments.
Whether the additional expense for infrastructure and configuration associated with multicast is economical depends on the application: Multicast is only worthwhile if many recipients want to receive the absolutely identical data stream at exactly the same time.
CCTV (Closed Circuit Television): Literally translated, this means "television for closed user groups". In contrast to public broadcasting, the images here are only intended for a limited group of people. In the broadest sense, corporate television or video conferences, for example, are also CCTV. In the security industry, this abbreviation is mainly used for video surveillance systems.
In the meantime, however, these systems are often no longer closed, but networked. In the relevant standards, the abbreviation → VSS is now used instead of CCTV.
CIF is the abbreviation for "Common Intermediate Format" and corresponds to an image size of 352x288 pixels (→ pixels).
Under the term CSCW (English: computer supported cooperative work) all techniques and methods for distributed work and tele-cooperation are summarized.
CSCW supports the collaboration in a work group whose participants are distributed over different locations and which are interconnected by a digital network, usually an IP network.
Possible components of a CSCW scenario are e.g.
- Shared whiteboard: Several participants can draw up a sketch together (similar to a real conference on a flipchart).
- Shared application: Several participants can control and view an application together.
- Shared document: Several participants can work together on a document (e.g. a CAD drawing).
- Audio conference: the participants can hear each other.
- Video conference: the participants can see each other.
The development of CSCW applications is made much easier by a suitable middleware such as SMI.
CVBS (Color Video Blanking Signal): Corresponds to the German → FBAS.
decoder see → video decoder
Digital matrix (also "Virtual matrix") are called → video management systems that can simulate the behavior of analog matrix switcher, in which any cameras can be switched to any monitors via the → GUI or a control interface.
The great advantage of digital crossbars compared to analog crossbars is that they use inexpensive, commercially available IT network technology to interconnect the sources with the sinks and do not require a large number of crosspoints implemented in special hardware.
This means that even very large numbers of cameras and monitors can be connected to one another in a completely flexible manner.
Digital video recorders (DVR) are devices with which video signals can be recorded digitally. In contrast to an → NVR, a DVR has special inputs to which analog cameras can be connected directly. The so-called → FBAS connection is most widespread for this.
Digital zoom: Demand-controlled enlargement of a selected area of the image by displaying sections of the existing image information in different scales. Digital zoom is only useful if the image to be enlarged has a sufficient → resolution (→ megapixel images). Otherwise, the digital zoom quickly reaches its limits and only shows coarser pixels without any additional information content.
See → Optical zoom.
A dispatcher is a software component of the control center application that automatically distributes pending tasks, such as → alarms or connections from the → virtual guard tour, to different workstations, depending on which space is free and technically suitable and which processor is technically responsible for the order.
Duplex see → -plex
DVR is the abbreviation for → digital video recorder.
EBÜS (Unified image transmission system): This is a → video management software that all imaging systems from different manufacturers, i.e. not only → IP cameras, but also → digital video recorders (DVR), → network video recorders (NVR), → video encoders and other → video management systems. Not only are pictures shown, but comprehensive control and research functions are also made available. EBÜS enables simple and standardized forwarding of images to → NSLs and the police (→ AS-POL) and is recommended by → KA-Bild and the associations involved (BHE, BDWS, ZVEI).
EMA (Intrusion alarm system): Can be a source of events that require video connection to clarify the cause of the trip.
Encoder see → video encoder
event: A variety of events can occur in a video system, e.g.
- Movement in the video image
- Recognition of car license plates from a given list
- Removing an object from the video image
- Triggering a camera contact
- Twisting the camera
- Failure of the camera signal
- Hard drive failure
- Panic button
- Door / window contact
- Glass break detector
- Smoke / fire alarm
- Infrared motion detector (IR)
- Photoelectric barrier
- Call station of an intercom system
Ethernet: Today the Usual network technology for wired → LAN.
FBAS (Color image blanking synchronous signal, English → CVBS): A signal common in analog video technology, in which both the color information (chrominance) and the brightness information (luminance) as well as all necessary synchronization signals (end of line, end of image) are transmitted together on one line (coaxial cable).
In the case of very simple devices, this signal is connected with cinch plugs, in higher-quality devices with BNC plugs, where the cable is secured against accidentally slipping out by means of a lock.
fps (frames per second): Unit of measurement for the → frame rate
Frame rate see → frame rate
FTP is the abbreviation for "File Transfer Protocol"and belongs to the → IP protocol family.
A FTP server is a data storage device to which data (e.g. video images) can be transferred via FTP and retrieved again. Many → image sources are able to automatically save their images permanently or in the event of certain events on an FTP server. This turns the FTP server into → image storage
Two-way talk see → Audio
GMA (Hazard reporting system): Generic term for → EMA, → ÜMA, etc. Can be a source of events that require a video connection to clarify the cause of the trip.
GMS is used as an abbreviation for "Hazard management system"as well as for"Building management system"used.
GUI stands as an abbreviation for "Grafical user interfaceWhat is meant is an operator interface (→ HI) that is based essentially on graphic elements ("Windows", "Controls", ...) in combination with a pointing instrument ("mouse").
This technology has established itself in the field of PC applications and is therefore increasingly used for controlling and evaluating video systems.
A heterogeneous video system consists of components from different manufacturers and is therefore more demanding to plan, install and configure than a → homogeneous video system, but offers more Investment security, because
- Existing video systems can continue to be used: This not only saves costs for new devices, it also saves installation work.
- different systems with their special properties can be combined with one another for a particularly economical solution.
- In the case of future expansions, not only one provider is considered: more favorable negotiating position for subsequent purchases; possible bottlenecks in the procurement of replacements or extensions are avoided from the outset.
HI is often an abbreviation for human interface and means the entire interface through which a system can be operated by people.
The design of this interface determines the user-friendliness, robustness and practicality of the overall system.
With an efficiently designed user interface, work processes can be significantly accelerated and made safer.
The prerequisite for this is close coordination between developers and users.
A graphical user interface (→ GUI) is usually used on modern systems.
At the History picture retrieval the video management system retrieves images from the image source based on certain criteria (e.g. location and time) and stores them in the video management system. These images are then available for → research in the video management system.
History pictures: Pictures from the past that are used, for example, as a comparison to the current situation (→ reference pictures) or document a change over a longer period of time.
A homogeneous video system consists only of components from a single manufacturer and is therefore usually easier to install and configure than a → heterogeneous video system
A Hybrid camera is a video camera that has both an analog (typically → FBAS) and a digital (typically → Ethernet, sometimes → WLAN) connection for the video signals, i.e. a combination of an analog video camera and → IP camera.
A Hybrid recorder is a video recorder that can record both analog and digital video signals, i.e. a combination of → DVR and → NVR.
The ICMP (English: internet control message protocol) offers a simple way of monitoring IP connections, such as those used for digital → CCTV applications.
A connection to a specific IP address can be checked with the command line program "Ping.exe".
The "AccPingService" software from Accellence offers automatic line monitoring for all image sources configured in EBÜS using ICMP.
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol: Member of the → IP protocol family for the management of → Multicast groups.
The Integration depth is a measure of the range of functions that is supported when connecting a → image source to a → video management system:
- Only show live images -> low integration depth
- Also comprehensive control and research functions -> great depth of integration
Integrative video management system or integrating video management system are called → video management systems such as → EBÜS, die
- → Combine image sources from different manufacturers under one user interface (→ GUI),
- transcode all received images into a uniform format and
- offer a uniform interface (e.g. → AMS_RCP) for controlling all video functions.
Intercom is another name for an intercom -> → Audio
With Interoperability what is meant is the smooth cooperation of various components. This can be achieved, for example, through common standards for the interfaces (protocols, data formats, ...).
Since there are still no comprehensive standards accepted by all manufacturers in the → CCTV area, software is required that makes components from different manufacturers interoperable with one another.
This is done e.g. by manufacturer-independent → video management software such as → EBÜS.
A IP camera is a camera that has its own network connection (typically → Ethernet, sometimes → WLAN) and already makes its images available digitally in the network.
Under a IP network we mean a digital network through which end devices are connected to each other, which can exchange data using protocols from the → IP protocol family.
IP protocol family: Collective term for a large number of protocols that have found widespread use, especially in the context of global Internet networking, and should therefore also be taken into account in new developments so that they are interoperable with existing systems.
- IP (Internet Protocol): Lowest protocol layer for addressing and fragmenting the data to be transmitted, so that the data can be transmitted over a data network as individual packets of the appropriate size without connection.
- TCP (Transfer Control Protocol): Connection-oriented protocol that is based on IP (is then also called TCP / IP), which ensures the secure transmission of data. Faulty or not transmitted data will be requested again.
- UDP (User Datagram Protocol): Simple, unsecured data transmission based on IP; is then also called UDP / IP.
- RTP (Realtime Protocol): Protocol for the transmission of real-time data (e.g. audio and video signals)
- RTCP (RTP Control Protocol): Protocol for determining the connection properties of an RTP transmission. With this information, the applications involved can readjust the coding of the data in a suitable manner, depending on the connection quality, for example.
- → ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): Protocol for monitoring IP connections.
- → IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol): Protocol for managing → multicast groups.
- → FTP (File Transfer Protocol): Protocol for storing and retrieving data on an FTP server.
- SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): Protocol for transferring emails. Also used by some image sources for event and alarm messages.
- SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): Protocol for managing devices on the network. Is also used by some image sources for status queries as well as event and alarm messages.
ISDN stands as an abbreviation for "Integrated Services Digital Network", the digital telephony system that is now widespread in Europe with usable bandwidths (available data rates) for end customers of 2x64kBit / s (S0 connection, 2 B channels) or 2MBit / s (S2M, primary rate connection).
ISDN is the successor to the analog telephone network, which is often abbreviated as → POTS. → ATM, for example, offers higher data rates than ISDN, which is why it is also called broadband ISDN.
Current trends in voice transmission are moving in the direction of Voice over IP (VoIP), since voice, video and computer data can be transmitted on a common network (network integration) and jointly evaluated (service integration).
If you want to implement IP connections via ISDN, you need → PPP.
The abbreviation JPEG stands for the "Joint Photographic Experts Group", an ISO working group that deals with the standardization of digital images and the associated compression processes.
JPEG compression is particularly suitable for realistic images with soft color gradients. With the help of the two-dimensional discrete cosine transformation, JPEG transforms image information into the frequency range and removes redundant, high-frequency components there. With a subsequent Huffman coding, a further reduction in the amount of data for an image is achieved. In the case of texts or graphics with sharp contours, depending on the degree of compression set, more or less strong typical artifacts (i.e. visible deviations from the original image) in the form of a box structure and shadows on the edges.
JPEG is initially a method of compressing and encoding individual images; by compressing all images of a video sequence individually and then saving and playing them one after the other, JPEG can also be used to save moving images (video sequences). The name M-JPEG (Motion-JPEG) has become established for this.
Even if MPEG causes much higher compression rates, M-JPEG still has its fields of application, because it offers:
- Display on any PC and in any browser, even without a plug-in.
- Can easily be displayed and further processed with commercially available software.
- Access to every single image is possible.
- Subsequent reduction of the frame rate is easily possible.
- Simple symmetrical algorithm that can be implemented inexpensively.
KA picture (Coordinating committee for image transmission, formerly → AK image): Work here
- Police representative,
- of the BHE (Federal Association of Manufacturers and Installers of Security Systems)
- of the BDWS (Federal Association of German Guard and Security Companies)
- and the ZVEI (Central Association of the Electrical and Electronics Industry)
Of compatibility is spoken when several components are → interoperable with one another, i.e. when they work with one another without problems in an overall system and can be exchanged with one another.
Cross-manufacturer → video management software such as → EBÜS can make video components from different manufacturers compatible with one another.
Compression method: In order to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted and stored for video images, redundant parts or parts that are not relevant for the given → security concept are removed from the digital data of the video images. Depending on the application, different compression methods can be considered. Due to the special properties of video images (especially the mostly flowing color gradients), the data compression methods (e.g. GIF, ZIP, RAR) commonly used in PC technology are not optimal. Better methods are e.g .:
- Motion-JPEG (M-JPEG, MJPEG)
- Wavelet, JPEG2000
- H.261, H.262, H.263, H.263L, H.264-AVC, H.264-SVC
- MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4
- HeiTel difference image method
A Crossbar (Coupling matrix, English: crossbar) can be roughly simplified and pictorially imagined as a combination of vertical lines to which the cameras are connected with horizontal lines to which the monitors are connected. At each intersection of a vertical and a horizontal line (crosspoints) there is a switch to connect the vertical line with the horizontal line.
This means that each camera can be connected to any monitor using a crossbar.
The switches at the crosspoints can be operated via a control panel or → video management software, whereby the control logic ensures that several video inputs may not be connected to the same video output.
The number of crosspoints increases disproportionately as the number of cameras and monitors increases, so that the effort and thus the costs for crossbars in large systems grow very strongly.
This can be countered in part by cascading several crossbars, i.e. switching them one behind the other in such a way that crossbar A already makes a preselection for the inputs of crossbar B.
This then also restricts the flexibility of the system, because not every combination of cameras and monitors is possible.
→ Digital routers offer a way out of this.
Location map: In order to quickly give the user a good overview and to enable quick orientation, the locations of the cameras in the respective → protected object are shown in a site plan. The camera can be selected by clicking the camera symbols in the site plan. The currently selected camera is highlighted in the map.
LAN (Local Area Network): Local network whose range, in contrast to → WAN, is usually limited to a few hundred meters of cable length and to one property.
The Specifications (English: requirement specification) describes according to DIN 69905 result-oriented the "totality of the requirements for the deliveries and services of a contractor", in our area thus the requirements for a system to be developed or to be delivered.
It makes sense to number all requirements in the specification sheet (A1 ... An) so that reference can be made to them in other documents (e.g. → specification sheet).
Furthermore, the specification sheet should name all boundary conditions (environmental conditions, installation dimensions, interfaces to the outside, etc.) that must be taken into account when solving the task.
The specification describes what for what is to be achieved, the specification describes, on the other hand, how and by which that is to be achieved.
The specification is usually written by the client, the specification by the contractor.
Under Latency (Delay time) is understood in a → CCTV system as the period of time between a change in the observed real scene and its display on the monitor in a → control center.
In principle, digital video transmission is always associated with a certain latency.
Particularly efficient video compression methods that evaluate the similarities of consecutive images in order to have to transmit as little data as possible often require particularly high latency times.
With a suitable technical design of a system (fast network (→ QoS), real-time-capable coding method, sufficient CPU performance, ...) the latency time can be reduced to an acceptable level for the respective application.
Particularly high requirements for low latency are made with → SNZ controls when a swiveling camera is to be tracked by operators in the remote control center to track a moving object.
The Specifications is a document that is attached to a → tender and in which the services to be provided are listed in detail and in decimal form.
In the Control center the images from the video surveillance system arrive and are evaluated here. The control center initiates the necessary measures (→ action plan) as a reaction to detected events (alarm, emergency call, fault messages, ...).
The Live image is ideally the image that is being recorded by the camera right now in the object to be monitored. However, since digital video systems always take a certain amount of time for technical reasons before the image is displayed to the recipient (→ latency), the term "live" in real systems is not absolute, but rather has a certain tolerance.
A high technical effort may have to be made for short transmission times. Therefore, the tolerance depends on the application and the project budget.
in the Action plan (Alarm plan), reactions to certain events and work steps to be carried out regularly are specified.
These measures can depend on certain conditions (time of day, combination with other events, evaluation of video images, ...).
Certain measures can also be carried out remotely (-> remote control) or fully automatically.
The automated implementation of action plans in software is often called "event manager".
Megapixel images are images with more than 1 million pixels (→ resolution). While with the analog video standards (PAL, NTSC, SECAM) the technically feasible resolutions were limited to less than 0.5 million pixels, the new digital technologies enable resolutions of many millions of pixels. This means that wide-angle recordings are possible for the first time, which at the same time allow a good overview of a large area (e.g. public spaces), but also make details recognizable by means of (also subsequently possible) -> digital zoom. In doing so, they do not need any vulnerable and expensive mechanics (→ optical zoom). The technology is still in its infancy; however, the performance of these systems will increase from year to year, and the prices for them will fall.
Under the term Metadata all additional information is summarized, which is saved together with the video images and which can be used for later evaluations.
This includes, for example, the → time stamp, information about the occasion, origin and quality of the image, data obtained from an image analysis or from other trades linked to the video system (such as package numbers in logistics, transaction IDs at checkouts and in banks, weather data) and any → Image notes that are entered by the centralist when evaluating images.
Motion detection see → motion detection
MPEG is an abbreviation for the "Motion Pictures Experts Group", an ISO / IEC working group that develops and standardizes processes for the digital coding of audio and video signals.
MPEG initially uses the methods known from JPEG for data reduction in single images, but also achieves a further data reduction by utilizing the redundancy of temporally consecutive images (motion compensation). In addition to full images (I-frames), intermediate images (P-frames, B-frames) are also transmitted, in which only the differences to previous or subsequent images are coded. This allows the amount of data to be significantly reduced again.
There are now a number of MPEG standards:
- MPEG-1: digital video in the PC, video CD, MP3
- MPEG-2: digital television, set-top boxes, DVD
- MPEG-4: all bit rates, media objects for web and mobile, including synthetic objects
- MPEG-7: Multimedia content description
- MPEG-21: Integration of multimedia technologies (identification, copyright, protection, etc.)
Multicast see → -cast.
MultiView representation: Display of several pictures, possibly also different picture sources next to and on top of each other.
In contrast to the → SplitView display, each image here corresponds to its own video channel, i.e. it is transmitted and saved independently of the other images.
Thus, each individual partial image of a MultiView view can be flexibly processed and forwarded, while the partial images of a SplitView display are combined in a single "real" video image and thus cannot easily be processed and forwarded independently of one another. However, the MultiView display generally requires significantly more network bandwidth and system resources than a SplitView display.
Post-alarm images: Just like the → pre-alarm images, the images after the alarm has been triggered can also be decisive for assessing the situation. In the case of a bank robbery, for example, the → alarm picture usually only shows the perpetrator masked; During the unmasking phase in the foyer, the most suitable wanted image can be found from the post-alarm images.
network: This term refers to the entirety of the transmission technology with which the connection between image sources and the control centers is established. The trend is towards realizing all network connections using IP technologies. However, there are still many objects in the inventory that are connected via ISDN, for example. For reasons of investment protection, a → VMS should therefore support all relevant network technologies.
Network camera: A camera that can be connected directly to the digital network. Most of these cameras work on the basis of the "Internet Protocol" (IP) and are therefore also called → IP cameras.
A Network video recorder (NVR) saves video images that are available in the digital network, e.g. from → IP cameras.
An NVR therefore does not need any special video inputs, just a network connection (usually Ethernet).
An NVR can therefore only consist of software that can be installed by the user on a suitable PC.
Emergency and service control center (NSL): → Control center for receiving and processing emergency calls and service inquiries.
Alarms are processed here (using an → AMS) and video images are displayed (using a → VMS).
Ideally, AMS and VMS are linked to one another via an interface (e.g. → AMS_RCP) so that the video images that match the current alarm are automatically displayed.
In contrast to the → ARC, an NSL usually offers more extensive services, such as remote switching of doors and lights, loudspeaker announcements, etc.
NSL see → Emergency and service control center
NTSC stands for "National Television Systems Committee" and is the name of the process used in the USA for analog color television.
NVR see → network video recorder
NVT is the English abbreviation for "Network video transmitter"and corresponds to the German term → Bildquelle
Object data: All relevant text information can be saved and retrieved here for every → object to be protected, e.g. the address, the telephone number of the person responsible who is to be informed in the event of suspicious observations, or complete -> action plans for the respective object.
Object recognition, Object tracking (English: tracking): Using certain visual features, an object is recognized and tracked in the video image. If necessary, a controllable camera is automatically tracked so that the tracked object remains in the field of view.
Optical zoom: Demand-controlled enlargement or reduction of the observed area through the optics (mechanical distance between the lenses): Telephoto lens setting for observing details (e.g. faces, license plates), wide-angle setting for a quick overview in large areas (e.g. public spaces, traffic junctions) .
In contrast to the -> → digital zoom, the number of significant pixels that are included in the display remains constant.
PAL is the abbreviation for "Phase Alternating Line" and is the name for the process common in Germany for analog color television.
Pentaplex see → -plex
pixel: English name for the individual pixels
The Specification book (English: system specification) refers to the → requirement specification in accordance with DIN 69905 by describing how and with what the requirements from the specification are implemented.
It is important to check whether the functional specification guarantees complete coverage of all requirements A1 ... An in the specification.
With the final syllable -plex Some manufacturers indicate how many functions their video systems can perform at the same time:
- simplex: Either only live broadcast or only recording
- Duplex: Simultaneously live transmission and recording, but not at the same time → research
- Triplex: During live transmission and recording, → research in the recorded video material is also possible at the same time
POTS stands for "Plain Old Telephone System". This term means classic analog telephony as opposed to ISDN, IP, GSM, UMTS etc.
PPP (English: Point-to-Point-Protocol) enables IP connections via point-to-point connections and thus allows the use of protocols from the → IP protocol family via other media (e.g. → ISDN).
In order to be able to use PPP dynamically and, if necessary, multi-channel from a PC, you need a controllable PPP protocol driver that is based on the → CAPI interface (CAPI-WAN adapter).
Presets (Preset positions): This refers to preset positions to which a controllable camera (→ SNZ) can be moved with a mouse click.
Progressive alerting: For concentrated work, the noise level in the control center should be kept as low as possible. Loud alarm tones are distracting and can even affect your health in the long term. However, if the alarm tones are too low, important alarms may not be heard. The solution is "progressive alarming": The arrival of an alarm is signaled quietly or even purely optically, over a large area prominently on the screen, or with a separate lamp or background lighting similar to Ambilight. Only if the alarm has not yet been accepted after a certain period of time is it also singalized acoustically, initially quietly, then increasingly louder, and increasing until everyone in the control center finally notices it. The tone color, the distance between the tones and the volume levels can be set individually. In addition, alarm tones can be suppressed as long as other alarms are being processed. If the alarms are usually accepted in good time, this method can drastically reduce the noise level in the control center.
Project: Project, temporary Task with clear goal and given budget;
requires an experienced project manager with good knowledge of project management, otherwise it can easily get out of hand and become expensive ...
Under a protocol we understand a clear and binding agreement (specification) of message formats, which enables the exchange of data between different electronic devices also across platforms.
Protocols play an important role in camera control, for example.
A piece of software must be available on all devices involved in the communication that "speaks" the protocols used, i.e. that can correctly interpret ("parse") the message formats used and extract the actual user data from them.
This software is assigned to the middleware.
So-called protocol converters (protocol converters) can be used so that devices can also participate in the communication that do not master a certain protocol.
PTZ (Pan, Tilt, Zoom): English term for → SNZ
QCIF is the abbreviation for "Quarter Common Intermediate Format" and corresponds to an image size of a quarter of → CIF, i.e. 176x144 image points (→ pixels).
Quad split, Quad display: Quadruple view that is displayed on a monitor or transmitted on a video channel; Abbreviation for a 2x2 → SplitView display.
Quadplex see → -plex
With Quality of Service (QoS) refers to the quality of service, i.e. the connection parameters that an application can assume when transmitting data over a network.
These include e.g.
- Network bandwidth (in terms of available data transfer rate)
- Time from connection request to connection allocation (latency)
- Transmission time (delay)
- Fluctuations in timing (jitter)
- Bit error rate
- Packet loss rate
Qualified picture: The → ÜEA guideline defines in Appendix 1 the requirements that the police place on a "qualified image":
Due to the underlying security concept and its technical quality, the transmission method used and the file format, it must be suitable to enable / support the measures taken by the police.
RCP is the abbreviation for "Remote Control Protocol". These protocols are mostly based on the → Internet Protocol (IP). One example is → AMS_RCP, with which alarm management systems can control the functions of EBÜS in order to automatically use the extensive video functions as part of alarm processing.
The Research is the most common application for the → playback of recorded images in a video surveillance system. Research means in the context of → CCTV the search for recorded images in a → image memory based on certain criteria, e.g.
- Time and place (camera)
- Alarm identifier
- Transaction number (e.g. for banking and cash register systems)
- Parcel number (in the logistics sector)
- Vehicle license plate (with license plate recognition from the video image, e.g. for traffic monitoring)
- Removal / addition of certain objects in the picture (investigation of theft, detection of a possibly dangerous suitcase)
Reference images are stored comparison images that are intended to help the safety specialist evaluate the video images. Using reference images, a target / actual comparison can be made for each camera and it can be seen at a glance whether, for example, the camera has been rotated or whether a valuable object has been removed. Another area of application for reference images are photos of everyone who is allowed to be in the property (positive list): The alarm processor compares the current video images with the reference images and can sort out false alarms if the recognized person can be seen on one of the reference images.
RGB stands as an abbreviation for the basic colors red, green and blue, from which the appropriate colors are mixed on the video monitors.
In one Ring buffer images are only saved for a defined period of time (e.g. 15 minutes) and then automatically deleted. If an alarm occurs, this ring buffer can be saved automatically so that the history of the alarm can be evaluated. The advantage in contrast to permanent storage is the limited memory consumption and data protection: video images are only saved when relevant events occur.
Under a Routine call one understands the regular connection of an image source to the control center in order to check the functionality of the video surveillance system.
RTP is a protocol that is based on the → Internet Protocol (IP).
tour see → Virtual guard tour
Arming: Alarm events are only reported to the → control center if an → alarm system is armed. The arming is usually linked to the locking of the property, for example. However, some image sources themselves also offer the option of arming, so that arming can be carried out remotely by the control center.
Protected object is an abstract term for the area to be protected by video surveillance.
This can be a building, a property, a subway, a parking garage, a gas station, a bank, a shopping center or the like.
Sequencer see → video sequencer
In one security concept the entirety of coordinated measures to achieve the required protection goals (→ goals) is documented.
Video surveillance is one of the usual and effective measures with increasing technical maturity and falling prices.
Security concept see → safety concept
simplex see → -plex
SNZ (Pan, tilt, zoom) denotes the ability to aim a camera specifically at certain objects in order to be able to see them in close-up with all details.
SplitView representation: Simultaneous display of several video images that share the available space on the screen.
The partial images are already combined by the image source or the image sender to form an overall image, so that, in contrast to the → MultiView display, only 1 video channel is required for transmission and network bandwidth, memory and computing power are saved accordingly.
So that the aspect ratios of the images are also retained in the SplitView display, a division of 2x2 images (→ Quadsplit), 3x3 images (9-fold split), 4x4 (16-fold split), etc. (MultiSplit) used.
TCP is a protocol that is based on the → Internet Protocol (IP).
timeline: English term for the → timeline
A Transcoder transcodes video images, i.e. it converts them from one format to another.
For example, EBÜS converts images that are coded in a wide variety of compression standards into JPEG format so that they can be uniformly stored, processed, evaluated and forwarded.
Triplex see → -plex
UDP is a protocol that is based on the → Internet Protocol (IP).
ÜEA guideline (Guideline for hold-up and burglar alarm systems with a connection to the police): This specifies the requirements for forwarding alarms to the police. Appendix 1 defines the terms, Appendix 2 contains an overview diagram including image transmission, Appendix 6 defines the requirements of the police for image transmission and image control. These are fully met by → EBÜS.
ÜMA (Assault reporting system): A special form of a → GMA that is used by people to call for help in the event of a robbery; is ideally coupled with video transmission so that the necessary assistance can be provided quickly and in a targeted manner.
ÜMS is the abbreviation for Superordinate management system. This term encompasses all systems that can be superordinate to a → VÜA, for example
- Hazard management systems (→ GMS)
- Building management systems (→ GMS)
- Software in situation centers or control centers (ELS)
- Operations centers, traffic control centers
- Control center or alarm processing software
- Alarm management software (→ AMS)
- Physical Security Information Management (PSIM)
- Process control software, control rooms
- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
Unicast see → -cast.
VCA is the abbreviation for → Video Content Analysis.
VCR is the English abbreviation for Video cassette recorder and denotes the old analog video cassette recorder in contrast to the modern digital → DVR. However, the operation of modern digital video systems is often modeled on a VCR in order to make it easier for users to get used to it, so that symbols and operating elements of a VCR can still be found in current video systems.
Under the term Video content analysis (VCA) summarizes all procedures with which the content of video images is automatically evaluated according to certain criteria. Different mathematical algorithms are used depending on the application.
A Video decoder is the matching counterpart to the → video encoder:
It converts the digitally coded video images transmitted via a network back into an analog signal so that the images can be displayed on a monitor or a large screen, for example.
A Video encoder is a device that digitally encodes analog video signals and thus makes them available in a digital network. Many video encoders contain additional connections with which the cameras can be controlled or switching signals can be evaluated.
As Video interface is a device that converts video images from one format to another, e.g. from analog to digital or from a proprietary format to a standard format (→ transcoder).
A PC with EBÜS software installed on it can be used as a video interface - it is then referred to as EBÜS VI. An EBÜS VI can be controlled via the → VI_RCP protocol.
Video management software Usually runs on PCs and turns them into a → video management system.
Video management system (VMS): A PC-based software solution with which images and events from the various → image sources can be received, saved, evaluated and forwarded.
Video research see → Research.
Video sensor: A device or software that evaluates incoming video images and uses them to generate events, e.g. when moving, when certain objects are recognized, when certain objects disappear, etc.
The Video sequencer switches various camera images to a monitor at adjustable time intervals in order to be able to periodically monitor a number of camera locations. For additional requirements, there is also the → Virtual guard tour function in some video systems.
Video server: This is often used to describe facilities on which various clients can save and retrieve video images (→ image storage). Some companies also use the term "video server" for → video encoders.
Video security system with the standard-compliant abbreviation VSS is the name recommended by the → BHE for all video systems that serve safety.
VI_RCP is the short name for that Video Interface Remote Control Protocolwith which an EBÜS PC can be used as a → video interface by other system components.
On request, an EBÜS VI establishes a connection to an → image source via VI_RCP, receives and transcodes all images into JPEG format, reports all received images including → metadata via VI_RCP and allows remote control and remote retrieval of functions of the image source.
Virtual guard tour (English: auto patrol, virtual rounds): With this function, the tour of a security guard through various objects is simulated with the means of video management. Images from the → protected objects to be monitored are activated according to a fixed or randomly controlled schedule. In contrast to a → video sequencer, the system does not simply switch over after certain time intervals, but targeted connections take place at fixed times, and a previously defined → action plan is displayed for each connection, which must be applied and confirmed (acknowledged) by the → centralist . With particularly powerful video management systems, these monitoring tasks are automatically distributed over several workstations depending on the availability of the employees (→ dispatcher function).
VLAN: Virtual → LAN: Serves to separate different types of data on a common physical network
VMS see → Video Management System
VoIP (Voice over IP) refers to the transmission of voice over → IP networks, also known colloquially as "Internet telephony".
IP offers the advantage that the same transmission network can also be used for other data (e.g. video, control commands, textual information, ...).
The "Session Initiaion Protocol" (SIP) is used, the "Realtime Transport Protocol" (RTP).
Pre-alarm images: Many image sources have a pre-alarm memory in which images are saved in a → ring buffer. These images can be called up from the image source after an alarm so that the history of the alarm can be evaluated. This is the only way to get to the pictures, e.g. in a bank robbery, when the perpetrator enters the bank without masking.
VSS is the official abbreviation for Video surveillance system, in German Video security system, Video surveillance system or Video surveillance system → VÜA.
But VSS is also a common abbreviation for Video storage system, often referred to as → video server or → image storage: saves the video images from various cameras and makes them available for retrieval and later evaluation (→ research).
VÜA is the abbreviation for Video surveillance system, in English → VSS
Guard tour see → Virtual guard tour
WAN (Wide Area Network): Collective term for network connections in the wide area, i.e. beyond the boundaries of a property. Various technologies can be used for this, such as DSL, ISDN, GSM (GPRS, EDGE), UMTS (HSDPA, HSUPA), ...
WIRELESS INTERNET ACCESS (Wireless Local Area Network): Collective term for various network technologies that enable wireless IP connections in close proximity (max. A few hundred meters).
A Webcam makes its images available in a digital network similar to an → IP camera.
However, webcams are generally understood to mean cameras of lower quality in terms of image quality and robustness (reliability).
Intercom see → Audio
reproduction (English: play) is the opposite of → recording: Images are transferred from an → image memory to a → image sink.
The most common application of playback in video surveillance systems is → research.
xMS stands for any management system, e.g. alarm MS (→ AMS); Building MS (→ GMS), hazard MS (→ GMS), ...
Each video image is based on its Timestamp (English: Timecode) assigned to the correct point in time on the timeline.
Time stamps should always be given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so that they are independent of the local time zone and any (summer / winter) time changes.
A Timeline (English: Timeline) provides a quick overview of all available video images and enables direct access to all images based on their → time stamp. The leftmost position on the timeline corresponds to the oldest, the rightmost to the newest image. By clicking on a point in the timeline with the mouse, you can quickly jump to any point in time.
Centralist means an employee in the → control center (control center, emergency call center) who receives messages and alarms and then initiates the necessary measures according to the → action plan.
aims video surveillance:
- Prevention: Deterrence through clearly visible video surveillance with correspondingly quick reactions of the intervention forces and high clarification rates.
- intervention: Protection of property, health and life through quick, targeted help and avoidance of unexpected confrontational situations thanks to a timely overview ("1 picture says more than 1000 words"); optimal guidance of the emergency services in critical situations.
- enlightenment: Photos of evidence, wanted photos, but also the reconstruction of complex events by synchronously playing back the image sequences from different camera perspectives.
zoom: Demand-controlled enlargement of the observed area: A distinction is made between → digital zoom and → optical zoom.
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