How did Eleanor von Aquataine die

Eleanor of Aquitaine

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Eleanor of Aquitaine was first Queen of France, obtained divorce, and became Queen of England. Her most famous son is Richard the Lionheart.

Eleanor of Aquitaine, born around 1122 in Poitiers in Aquitaine (today France), died on April 1, 1204 in the Fontevrault monastery in France.

Eleanor had many titles in her eventful, exciting life: Eleanor of Poitou, rich heiress of Aquitaine, queen of two countries, queen of France, queen of England, duchess of Aquitaine and finally queen of the troubadours. It is not without reason that Eleanor of Aquitaine is one of the most powerful women of the Middle Ages.

Her children include Richard the Lionheart and John Without Land, both kings of England. A granddaughter, Blanca of Castile, becomes Queen of France.

Eleanor family of Aquitaine

When exactly Eleanor was born is unknown. It was around 1122 in Poitiers. She was the daughter of Duke William X of Aquitaine (1099-1137) and the Aenòr de Chateleràud (1105-1130) and the girl was baptized in the name of her mother Aenòr. In order to distinguish mother and daughter from each other, the younger one was called Aliénor (the other Aenòr) and she became known as Eleonore.

Eleanor was not the only child of her parents. Her younger brother Wilhelm was born in 1130, he died before his father, Duke Wilhelm X. And so Eleanor became the wealthy heiress of Aquitaine. When her younger sister Aélis (Petronilla) was born is unknown.

Eleanor becomes heiress of Aquitaine and Queen of France

Eleonore's mother Aenor dies in 1130, seven years later (1137) her father Wilhelm, the last Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou from the Ramnulfiden dynasty. The wealthy heiress Eleanor was married to the then Crown Prince of France, Louis VII, in the same year. She must have been 13 or 15 years old. On the one hand Eleanor, who promotes the muse, later becomes known as Queen of the Troubadors, and on the other hand the young Ludwig, who was brought up in a monastery and is only drawn into the limelight after the death of his older brother. While Eleonore turns Paris into a court of muses, her husband Ludwig continues to feel committed to monastic life. In 1145 the first daughter, Marie, is born. No heir to the throne for France.

Eleonore also gets involved in politics. She supports the dissolution of Raoul de Vermandois, with whom her sister Petronilla is in love. She often clashes with Abbot Suger, the adviser to her monk husband.

Eleanor takes part in the 2nd crusade

From 1147 to 1150 Eleanor took part in the 2nd crusade to the Holy Land at the side of King Ludwig. There in Antioch she meets her uncle Raymond again, with whom she is assumed to have a love affair. In addition, Raimund and Ludwig are political opponents during the crusade, which also leads to resentment between the couple. Eleanor wants to dissolve the marriage to Ludwig, but first there is a reconciliation - with the help of the Pope - and the second daughter, Alix (Alice) is born in 1150 shortly after the return. The crusade itself failed. And the birth of Alix is ​​a disappointment for her father Ludwig, he urgently needs an heir to the throne.
Crusade Timeline

Dissolution of the marriage of Eleonore and King Ludwig

Eleanor continues to dissolve their marriage and is ultimately successful. On March 21, 1152, the marriage between King Ludwig and the Duchess of Aquitaine was annulled at the Council of Beaugency. The blood relationship between the two is too close. As early as 1150, Eleanor had raised concerns about a close relationship between himself and Ludwig in order for the Pope to dissolve the marriage. Eleonore is allowed to keep her ancestral goods.

Second marriage of Eleanor to Count Heinrich, future King of England

The dissolution of the marriage was hardly decided when Eleonore remarried just eight weeks later. Her second husband is Heinrich Plantagent, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. She had met him in 1151. With the wedding of Heinrich and Eleanor, huge possessions in the southwest of France come under one hand, because Eleanor brings her Duchy of Aquitaine into the marriage. And in 1154 King Stefan of England died, on Christmas of the same year Henry and Eleanor were crowned in Westminster Abbey. The former Queen of France is now Queen of England.

Eleonore and Heinrich have eight children, five sons, one of whom, however, does not survive childhood.
One of the children is Matilda, who later became the wife of Duke Heinrich the Lion.

King Ludwig marries again

But Ludwig did not stay unmarried for long either. He married Constance of Castile in 1154. She dies after a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela giving birth to her second daughter Adelheid in 1160. Her first daughter Margarete will later marry Heinrich the Younger, son of Eleonore and Heinrich. The second daughter Adelheid (Alix) is engaged to Richard the Lionheart.

King Heinrich and Queen Eleanor as a couple

Eleonore and Heinrich share the power of government in their different parts of the country. Although Eleanor's rights as Duchess of Aquitaine had passed to her husband at the time of marriage, her consent was necessary for every disposition. As a royal consort, Eleanor signed documents in her own name.

In 1167 the couple's last child, Johann (later known as Johann ohne Land), was born. Heinrich himself is not, however, the faithful husband, he has a lover, the beautiful Rosamunde, daughter of a Norman knight. There is a break between the dream couple who entered. Eleanor is offended and retires to Poitiers in her home country. There your court becomes the center of courtly and knightly life. There she also meets her daughters from her first marriage, Alix von Blois, who later joins the Klsoter von Fontevrault, and Marie von der Champagne.

Rebellion against King Henry

Under King Henry there were disputes over the relationship between church and state in England. At the height of these disputes, Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was assassinated in his cathedral in 1170. As a result, there is an uprising, in which Heinrich's sons also participate and Eleonore particularly supports her favorite son Richard the Lionheart in the rebellion.

Eleanor as a prisoner

1174 Eleanor returns to England as a prisoner of her husband. She remained a prisoner on the island of Oléron for 16 years. However, Eleanor is not an incarcerated prisoner. Eleonore was able to travel to Normandy in 1185/86. And in 1186 after the death of the first-born son Heinrich, Eleanor was allowed to move freely again, but she was never given back her previous position.

Eleanor is set free - Richard the Lionheart becomes king

Henry II dies in 1190. Until King Richard's arrival in England, Eleanor enjoys the greatest authority, but is not officially regent. She prepares the coronation of her son. Richard is almost unknown in England as he spent more of his time on the European mainland. His first appearance as the new king is celebrated with full splendor.

Richard the Lionheart did not stay in England for long. Shortly after his coronation he was preparing to take part in the 3rd crusade, as was Friedrich Barbarossa and King Philip Augustus of France.

Eleanor now arranges Richard's engagement with Berengaria, daughter of the King of Navarre. In the spring of 1191, Eleanor and Berengaria of Navarre met Richard the Lionheart in Sicily. Berengaria travels on with her future husband, Eleanor returns to western France and represents Richard as regent.

When the news of Richard's capture by Leopold of Austria arrives, Eleonore tries to help her favorite son to freedom. She turns to the Pope and gets the ransom. She herself brings the ransom into the empire and is in Mainz when Richard is released in 1194.

Richard the Lionheart dies

Eleanor and Richard return to England. The king does not last long there, he is said to have only spent three months of his time as crowned king on the island, he travels to Normandy and is accompanied by Eleanor. The Duchess is now over 70 years old and is increasingly withdrawing to the Fontevrault monastery.

In 1199, in the rest of her monastery, she received the news that her son Richard had been fatally wounded and he was said to have died in her arms. Of her five sons from her marriage to King Heinrich, only Johann lives now, who now becomes King of England.

Eleonore's last trip as a matchmaker

When she is over 80 years old, Eleonore goes on another trip. She crosses the Pyrenees and visits her youngest daughter Eleanor, who has been married to King Alfonso VIII of Castile since 1170. On the return journey she accompanies her granddaughter Blanca, the bride of the French heir to the throne. Her granddaughter later also becomes Queen of France.

Your last big trip. Eleanor dies on April 1, 1204 and is buried in the Fontevrault monastery. At her side today is Henry II of England, her son Richard the Lionheart and her daughter-in-law Isabelle von Angouleme, the second wife of her son Johann Ohneland.

The grave monument

Her grave monument shows her wrapped in the folds of her dress and cloak. The face is framed by a veil and a chin band, she is reading in a book: The picture of the highly educated queen, whose intellectual interests remained awake to the last breath, who inspired troubadours and minstrels.

Marriages and Children of Eleanor

First marriage to King Ludwig

1. Marriage to King Ludwig VII., The boy, closed in 1137, dissolved in 1152.
The two daughters Marie de Champagne (1145-1198), married to Heinirch I, Count of Blois-Champagne, and Alix (1150-after 1195), married to Theobald V, Count of Blois and Cahrtres, result from the marriage .

Second marriage to King Heinrich

1. Marriage to King Henry II of England, 1152
Children from the marriage with Heinrich: Wilhelm (August 17, 1153 to 1156).
Henry the Younger (1155 to 1183), heir to the throne and co-king of his father, married to Margaret of France, which in fact would have meant a union of the two countries at the time, after all, Philipp August was not yet born.
Mathilde (1156 to 1189), married to Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria.
Richard the Lionheart (1157 to 1199), King of England, married to Berengaria of Navarre.
Gottfried II., (23 September 1158 August 1186), Duke of Brittany, married to Konstanze von der Bretagne, the last descendant of the Dukes of Brittany.
Eleanor (1162 to 1214), married King Alfonso VIII, King of Castile. Blanca, the daughter from this marriage, later becomes Queen of France.
Johanna (October 1165 to September 1199), first married to. 1177 Wilhelm II. King of Sicily and in his second marriage with 1196 Raimund VI., Count of Toulouse.
Johann Ohneland (1167 to 1216), King of England, married to Isabella of Angoulême.

Eleanor in the film

The life of Eleonore is also filmed in 1968 The lion in winter (The Lion in Winter). The main role of Eleanor of Aquitaine is played by Katharine Hepburn. The actress also received the Oscar for best leading actress for her portrayal as Eleonore. The lion in winter.

The film is set around Christmas time in 1183. The lion in winter is about the intrigues at the royal court to succeed Heinrich II. King Heinrich II. Is played by Peter O'Toole. Other actresses are Anthony Hopkins, who plays the young Richard, and Timothy Dalton in the role of French King Philippe II.

Of The lion in winter there is a remake of the same name with Glenn Close and Patrick Stewart in the lead roles. The film was released in 2003 and earned Glenn Close an Emmy nomination and a Golden Globe in 2005. The Lion in Winter - The Lion in Winter - Fight for the king's crown

Eleanor in historical novels

The Lioness of Aquitaine: Historical Novel

The lioness of Aquitaine. Historical novel by Tanja Kinkel. Also available as a Kindle Edition. Well-written, well-researched book about the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine. One of the first historical novels that I read about Eleonore myself, exciting to the end.

The Queen's Song: Historical Novel

Elizabeth is dedicated to Chadwick The Queen's Song the life story of Alienor, Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress of the rich Duchy of Aquitaine. Also well researched, in the appendix there are a few family trees that help to keep an overview. The Queen's Song is also available as an ebook.

I, Eleanor, Queen of Two Realms: Historical Novel

Historical novel by Sabine Weigand. The book has not yet been published, but Sabine Weigand is no stranger to writing historical novels, so she wrote The souls in the fire, a novel from the time of the witch hunt. (The souls in the fire).

Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen of the Middle Ages Biography

A biography of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen of the Middle Ages by Ralph V. Turner. Eleanor of Aquitaine (1124-1204) is the most famous and at the same time the most notorious queen of the Middle Ages. In this carefully researched and excitingly written biography, we receive a portrait of the Queen for the first time, which takes into account all aspects of her history - including the scandalous ones such as troubadours, court of love and adultery - based on the latest research. However, this Eleanor biography did not convince all readers.

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