Is there an entrance exam for TNAU

Cover picture: Silphium perfoliatum L. (compass or cup plant)



2 on the cover picture: Silphium perfoliatum L. (compass or cup plant). Report on page 46 Photo: Hald

3 THE PERENNIAL GARDEN No. 3/1985 \. ' 4erps, s, _Arx, - v, - N N '. e L -, '.Nteet) t ;;; 4 Quarterly magazine of the Gesellschaft der Staudenfreunde Z' (formerly the German Iris and Lilien Society) H ti. (

4 GESELLSCHAFT DER STAUDENFREUNDE EV Charitable Society - Registered at the District Court of Berlin-Charlottenburg Office: Dörrenklingenweg 35, 7114 Pfedelbach.Untersteinbach, Tel / 692 The GESELLSCHAFT DER STAUDENFREUNDE (GDS) as the extended German iris and lily society sees its task in promoting and spreading the sheep Outdoor shrub perennials (irises, lilies, day lilies, general magnificent perennials, mountain plants, grasses and ferns, bulbs and tubers, aquatic and marsh plants, etc.). Annual fee: 35 DM / 15 DM for students for a period of 3 years. The subscription price of the magazine is included in the membership fee. Accounts: Postscheckamt Stuttgart Kreissparkasse Leonberg Board of Directors: President: Hermann Hald, Dörrenklingenweg 35, 7114 Pfedelbach.Untersteinbach 1st Deputy President: Countess von Stein-Zeppelin, 7811 Sulzburg 2 (Laufen) 2nd Deputy President: Fritz Kühlein, Wiesenstrasse 4, 8581 Bindlach Treasurer: Waltraud Busbach, Äußere Sulzbsd.:er Straße 18, 8500 Nürnberg Managing Director: Martel Hald, Dörrenklingenweg 35, 7114 Pfedelbach.Untersteinbach Honorary member of the GDS: Countess von Stein-Zeppelin Specialist groups and regional groups see cover page 3. Editor and publisher of the magazine Der Staudengarten ": Gesellschaft der Staudentreunde eV Editorial team: 11. and M. Hald, Dörrenklingenweg 35, 7114 Untersteinbach Martin Haberer, garden and landscape architect, Untere Wengertstraße 9, 7441 Nürtingen-Raidwangen (book reviews) Den The authors concerned are responsible for the content of the articles.Overall production: Book printing - offset printing Friedrich Aickelin, Lindenstraße I, 7250 Leonberg.Additional note: Prospectus of the Ulmer publishing house "Freilandschmuckstauden" by Jehtto / Sehacht.

5 Annual Conference 1985 in Erlangen in June Helmut and Anne Müller The "University and Siemens City" Erlangen was for us members of the Society of Perennial Friends this year the target of our annual conference. Already on time, many friends met in the foyer of the "Kleine Stadthalle". Over coffee and cake you exchanged first greetings and were happy to see you again. Every year it is a nice experience when you can greet plant friends who you have known for years, but very seldom, often only once a year, at the conference because of the distance between them. The general meeting in the hall of the "Kleine Stadthalle" with its now inevitable regulations was led by our president, Hermann Hald, in the usual way and punctually after the welcome by a representative of the city of Erlangen and the greeting poem of our tireless Martel Hald, which we have already loved brought to an end. In the election of the new board for a further three years, led by Mr. Hahn, the "well-deserved old board" was unanimously re-elected by a show of hands. The great applause with which the congratulations on this decision were expressed should be mentioned again at this point, combined with special thanks to our board of directors. The well-deserved award of the Karl Foerster Medal to Mr. Köhlein, our 2nd chairman, caused great surprise and joy. He also received great applause. The same honor was given to the well-deserved head of the Rock Garden Plants and Alpine Perennials Section, Mr. Manfred Wagner, but unfortunately he was not present. After the meeting had determined the conference location Mallnitz for 1986, Mr. Paulus took the floor and made the trip to Austria in the next year palatable for us with a brief description of the location Mallnitz and the alpine garden he had created. So we are very excited and will be there! The subsequent dinner in the beautifully decorated foyer united the friends who had come from all directions in a happy round. With Franconian special dishes and a lively exchange of ideas, the time went by before the scheduled lecture by Mr. Schmidt from the Nuremberg Cultural History Society. 1

6 The subject of "Plants with personal names" projected onto two screens at the same time had aroused great curiosity. She was completely satisfied, even more: We saw each other in a room with many highly learned botanists from the 17th and 18th centuries and felt directly addressed by their scientific work and botanical finds; Even today we benefit from the globally standardized botanical naming (nomenclature) that took place back then. Let us now think of a few names that should be mentioned as substitutes for all others: Johann Caspar Bauhin BAUHINIA, K. A. von Bergen BERGENIA, G. J. Billberg BILLBERGIA, Andreas Dahl DAHLIA, Leonard Fuchs FUCHSIA, W. D. J. Koch KOCHIA, Gottfried Zinn ZINNIA. The list could go on and on. How interesting the lecture was, you could tell by the attention of the audience. Special thanks again to Mr. Schmidt for his presentation. At the cozy end of the day in the small beer parlor, the conversations kept coming back to the highly interesting lecture. Very early on Saturday morning the night was a bit short, we met at the bus station at 8.45 a.m. for a trip through Franconian Switzerland. Three buses started on this trip, unfortunately in cloudy, rainy weather. Petrus certainly didn't want to have any idleness in Franconia's beautiful room on Saturday. After all, you can do it on Saturdays and not go for a walk. A local driver was assigned to each bus. We were lucky enough to have Dr. Tietze from the local history working group in the "Franconian Switzerland Association" on the bus. He knew how to tell us about the country and its people in an interesting way, drew our attention to the many castles and sights and also explained the flora "on the side", of which we unfortunately could not see too much while driving past. Our first stop was the "Tüchersfelden" castle. We arrived there in pouring rain and were warmly welcomed by the museum director. The farmer's museum to be visited had already been opened especially for us. It was still under renovation and construction and was not to be made accessible to the public until a few weeks later. He explained the history of the castle to us so exciting that we almost forgot the rain. The subsequent tour showed that plant lovers can also get excited about other things. The geological exhibition in particular met with great interest. This section of the museum is structured very carefully and is easy to understand even for laypeople. 2

7 Welcome in the courtyard of the "Tüchersfelden" castle. Short detour to a juniper heath near "Sanspareil" We drove on through the picturesque Wiesenttal, past the beautiful pilgrimage church of Gössweinstein, on roads that were meanwhile clean The second stop was for a "small snack" in the Schottersmühle. On the restaurant terrace, some local artists in Franconian costumes had set up a small exhibition with shopping opportunities, which was well used. In addition, the weather had meanwhile been beautiful. Then the journey went further through the beautiful landscape to Sanspareil. One could be very excited about this landscape garden, the "first English garden" in Germany, not least because of the article by Mr. Walter Erhardt published in the perennial garden 2/1985 , as we know , originally created out of boredom by Wilhelmine, the sister of "Old Fritz", was unprecedented among the architectural gardens of the Baroque and Rococo in Germany at the time. It was not structured around the elongated main axis of a castle, nor was it geometrically regular at all, as was customary at the time. Wilhelmine wanted a landscape garden, "where 3

8 nature had modeled everything ". She had a number of buildings erected, some of which still exist today in their original form, such as the" Oriental Building ", which we were able to visit, and the so-called" Kitchen Building ". In The whole complex is now a well-maintained park, the existing rock groups and stone formations were planned in such a way that grottos, rock passages, viewpoints and resting places emerged. On very well-kept paths, sometimes sloping, sometimes rising in irregular turns, one could relax under the wonderful old trees "endured", but we didn't have that much time with us and were only able to take a quick look at the well-preserved rock theater, which supposedly never had any theatrical performances. We also wanted to visit Zwernitz Castle, which is adjacent to the rock garden The castle is also very well preserved, but none of the "many wonderful rooms" is there longer present in its original state. From the tower one had a magnificent panoramic view of the "Bamberg and Bayreuth up to the Palatinate and the majestic mountains of Bohemia". Anyone who took part in the conference in Hof at the time will certainly remember the sightseeing trip to Bayreuth and the Hermitage. The versatile Wilhelmine had the temple of the sun decorated over and over with colored stones and glass. Many buildings in Bayreuth bear Wilhelmine's signature. One speaks of the Wilhelmine era there too. We would have liked to have enjoyed the beautiful places longer, but the stop at the Hotel Bettina was already inevitable. Halfway there, at the request of some members, a short stop was made to inspect a juniper heather that one encounters time and again in Franconian Switzerland. There is a very special attraction of these here on the Schwäb. For years now again well-groomed and cherished pagans. The beautifully situated Hotel Bettina with a panoramic view of Franconia spoiled us not only with culinary delights, but also gave us a very special end to the day. After a glorious sunset, a crackling midsummer fire was lit, around which we gathered in large groups. Mr. Winkler, known to many as a lily grower, turned out to be the conductor and lead singer of our band and we ended this rich day with a lot of fun and lots of funny and beautiful old folk songs. Sunday morning 8.30 a.m., meeting point at the Erlangen Botanical Garden. The beautiful, sun-drenched Sunday morning would have been perfectly suited to the one that has existed for 150 years. Take a close look around the garden of the University of Erlangen. In its present form, the garden covers an area of ​​2 hectares, of which 1700 square meters are greenhouses, but unfortunately it was not possible to visit the latter due to lack of time. In the open air, in many, well-structured departments, approx. 4

9 4000 types of plants are cultivated and continuously supplemented and expanded through constant exchange of seeds with other botanical gardens around the world. The whole area in the middle of the city is surrounded by beautiful old trees. The tour of the garden was given by Dr. Tietze taken over. Unfortunately, his extremely interesting remarks for the too large group were not audible and visible for many. We thought that was a shame. We have decided to take an extensive tour of the facility on our next visit to Erlangen. Driven a bit by the clock, we then walked through very beautiful old parks to the aroma garden. As stated in the program, "the first and the only one of its kind in Europe". We would have loved to have enjoyed the sunny garden with its many well-known and unknown aromatic plants, some only develop their aroma in the sunshine, and Dr. Listened to Tietzes nice stories, but the buses were ready. However, we would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Thank you Tietze. The drive to Frau Ottens Garten through the wide, sun-drenched Regnitz valley really created a Sunday mood. This was increased by the very warm welcome from Ms. Ottens. A wind group welcomed us with happy and contemplative ways and the words that Mrs. Ottens addressed to us prepared us for a visit to her very special garden. She described to us the development of her garden, which is bound by the landscape and the "Bohemian winds". Mr. Dieter Mautz with his wind quartet welcomed us with sonorous Renaissance music and Ms. Ottens knew how to put her more than 200 guests in an expectant mood with warm welcome and introductory words. Photos: Germey 5

10 People were admiring in the spacious garden, where one could hear interesting things about the creation and design of ponds from Mr Klaus Präg, among others. In addition, the artful glass bead crowns by Eva-Maria Schmid from Weikersheim, based on an old Bohemian tradition, fit surprisingly harmoniously into the garden image. Photos: Hald And then we couldn't stop being amazed. Not only the plants, especially the many beautiful roses, attracted us the most, no, it was the overall structure, composed of many wonderfully successful individual parts, that was so fascinating. Whether it was the pond or the spring stone border with pebbles and hand-blown glass balls, the Bohemian glass crown hung over the wonderfully scented roses or the more than 300 fuchsias, it was overwhelming. Wherever you looked, you discovered something new and unusual again and again. For many of us, especially for us women, the silk and pearl embroidery, artistically made by Ms. Ottens with a lot of imagination, was a very special feast for the eyes. Many hardworking hands took care of the physical well-being of the visitors. Sandwiches, coffee, cake, beer, juice or soda everything was available, nothing was missing. Later we sat together comfortably in front of the garden with grilled sausages and beer, and the brass group played their tunes tirelessly. With warm farewell words, Mrs. Ottens dismissed the whole company, and on behalf of everyone, our Martel Hald thanked them for these wonderful hours. We too would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks again. 6th

11 The conference officially came to an end with the return trip to Erlangen. Unfortunately, due to private obligations, we were no longer able to take part in the garden tours that were still possible. Once again we met old friends and made new ones. And we think that more important than owning any "dream plant" is this human coming together and for this reason alone it is always worthwhile to take part in our annual meetings. In any case, we are already looking forward to the next conference in Mallnitz. Note Hald: Even if, due to the rich program and the drive home, not too many participants were able to make use of the opportunity to visit the four private gardens, each of these gardens was a major attraction with its very own character, for which the designer and owner can only be congratulated can. This is the garden of the Tschakert and Lenz family in Erlangen-Frauenaurach and the Kirchweger and Schmidt family in Erlangen-Uttenreuth. 7th

12 In memory of our deceased honorary member Carl Feldmaier Andreas Winkler With the death of Dipl.-Ing. Carl Feldmaier on May 7, 1985, the members of the GDS and we lily friends in many countries around the world lost a great person and a great gardener. A great person, as you can rarely find in today's superficial and fast-moving society. Those who met him or visited his garden in parish churches when the lilies were in bloom, but also many who never met him personally and only knew him from years of correspondence, were always first impressed by the person Carl Feldmaier. He was a quiet person, not a loud one! His rural environment and origins in Lower Bavaria had shaped him, not the dainty, somewhat busy Rococo in its exuberant joy, but the peasant baroque, this (lifestyle) style that encompasses all areas of life, transparent, deliberate and yet full of joie de vivre. This is how he approached his fellow men and this is how he talked to them and this is how he judged them. It was this way of life that immediately impressed the other and made him so valued. He wasn't an activist! His highly developed aesthetic feeling, as it was expressed in his many pictures, was propagated in the selection of his lilies. In a radio report a few years ago, he expressed his way of looking at things: Back then, he created a thought bridge between his artistic and aesthetic view of his environment, his striving for beautiful lilies that should bring joy to fellow human beings and his baroque, rural home in Lower Bavaria. 8th

13 Anyone who has understood his Christmas cards, which he designed himself every year and his religious pictures behind glass, has also understood the great person Carl Feldmaier. We have all lost a great gardener. His breeding efforts and his lilies, which he brought out over the course of more than 30 years of breeding, allow this name. His heart belonged to the lilies for over 50 years. "I came across this hobby by chance. When I returned from Frankfurt to my parents' house in 1932, my mother had lilies in the garden that were blooming beautifully. And when the king lilies showed seeds, I took some and sown them. I also got seedlings. They were planted out and there was nothing to be seen of them the next year. That annoyed me and at the same time was one of the reasons to prescribe myself to the lilies, "he once said. The great lily breeder Alexander Steffen gave him many suggestions in these early years. When he became more intensively involved in breeding after 1945, he was the first to seek contact with the lily breeders in the USA. As he himself repeatedly emphasized, he received a lot of knowledge and suggestions from these American friends. Sam Emsweller visited him in Pfarrkirchen during these years, and Carl Feldmaier already wrote a "Report from Germany" in the NALS 'Second Lily Yearbook 1949. Feldmaier was neither an egoist nor a loner. If you want to evaluate the almost unmanageable number of his publications, you have to recognize: He passed on his own experiences and knowledge in order to win others over to the beautiful garden flower lily. How could it be otherwise that he was a founding member of the German Iris and Lily Society, the forerunner of the GDS. His thorough occupation with everything he could get about lilies, his correspondence with the great lily breeders, but also, and especially, his own experiences have made him a respected specialist and conversation partner. He was invited to the World Lily Conference in London in 1970 and reported there on lilies and lily breeding in Germany. Even then he was and remained so until his death: The internationally recognized representative of lily cultivation in Germany. Finally, his book "Die neue Lilien", which appeared in 1967 and was soon also translated into English, was and is, along with "Lilies of the World", the standard work on lilies worldwide. When he and Judith McRae wrote the revised 9

14, it was the culmination of his life's work with lilies for him personally. Bringing out this book with Judith McRae has been a particular pleasure for him. Not only the many suggestions and information that he immediately and selflessly passed on in his publications, but especially the wonderful lilies that he grew and passed on, made him one of the greats of the lily guild. Undeterred by fashion trends and commercial considerations, he has always only grown lilies that are suitable for the garden due to their health and aesthetics. Many will still remember the splendid Aurelian hybrids, these towers of rare size, stability and color. But his varieties from the Asian circle of shapes will definitely be in the gardens of the lily friends for a long time to come. In the international lily register, 11 types of lily names were registered by Carl Feldmaier: 1955 'Roter Prinz' 'Schellenbaum' 1960 'Ralph' 'Sonnentiger' 1966 'Schützenlisl' 1968 'Treues Herz' 1972 'Brauner Bär' 1973 'Discus' 1977' Agnes Bernauer '' Herold '1978' Obrist 'All of these varieties are certainly to be found in many gardens in many countries around the world. They weren't and are not mayflies, these field lilies, but garden lilies that the owner can enjoy for a long time. One of these breeds still has to be highlighted: "Schellenbaum". Although it was selected in 1955 and given a name, this splendid cultivation has never found anything like it as a garden lily. The many honors that Carl Feldmaier earned with his lilies and with his work for the lilies should not all be listed. But it is certainly the greatest honor for him that this lily blooms on all continents of this earth. As long as a "bell tree" is still blooming in a garden in the world, his lily friends Carl Feldmaier will not be forgotten! 10

15 Is Gardening Fun? Charlotte Ottens During the meeting on June 23rd in Eggolsheim, I was unable to answer the most frequently asked question in peace, because the hours for the visit were limited and filled with content. Since Halds gave me the opportunity to explain a few things in the perennial garden, I repeat the question: "You have 48 hours of intensive work in your garden? The large lawn alone is a lot of effort? Is it fun for you?" Again and again "is that fun?" Can also be heard on television every day. Vocational training should be fun, the job should be fun. Even school lessons should be fun. And now gardening too? I search in my soul. No, I don't enjoy gardening. I think about this fashionable buzzword, and lo and behold, buzzwords have always existed. In the book of Koholet, which was written in the 3rd century BC, I read in the 8th verse: "All words are overstrained, nobody can express themselves, the eye is not full when it is observed, the ear is not full of hearing". So I ask the Duden. "Fun" says satisfaction, joy. It shouldn't be word-splitting when I confirm that gardening means joy and satisfaction to me. But is there fun in the garden too? My answer will be understood by those friends of our society who visited Sanspareil the day before, where in the midst of beech groves and colossi of rock the rococo mock comedy blossomed in theatrical serenity for a short period of time, until the fun was swept away by the French Revolution and the many duodec princes no longer had a chance To find fun with their garden figures, nymphs and putti in the green hedge paths and flower-adorned posquettes of their parks. 11

16 And yet, says Max Freiherr von Aufseß (at home here in the Franconian Jura) "Even in the rococo gardening enthusiasm with its hedge trimmings and artificial interventions in nature, increasingly through the addition of sculptures, there is still the good core of a human, all too human Strebens: At least a little piece of earth, even if it is just an allotment garden, the prodigal son of earth would like to see enchanted down here in a divine or garden dwarf-blessed pleasure garden. " And in the blissful pleasure garden there can still be some fun today, even if only funny garden gnomes smile at us. Second, that the large lawn is a lot of work. Counter-question: How is it with a meadow that is loudly touted everywhere today, starting with colorful, tempting sachets of seeds? That the short lawn is indispensable for me, not least the green as a reminder to calm down, I said at the meeting here. Now, a few days ago, at the beginning of August, I came across an article in "Gartenratgeber" (Obst- und Gartenbauverlag Munich), issue 8,85, p. 237 v. Dr. Cl. Mehnert. Expertise and balance characterize this contribution. I asked for permission for further publication and was also able to talk to Dr. Mehnert speak for himself. He is not only a Weihenstephan, but also a member of our society. We should be obliged to publish his explanations and hopefully give many people something to think about. Last question, my "48 hour day". Answer "the microwave does it". Evidently significant savings in electricity and water (apart from the much gentler methods of preparation) are also part of what is known as an ecological way of thinking. In addition, the daily time savings are considerable. And when the episode "Grandmother's Way" and "Bio Formula" has subsided, I will go ahead with flying colors in the microwave. And the time saved every day, as already now, I continue to use to grow even more flowering plants, even if the use often gives me a headache, because the plants cannot be placed on top of each other, but only close to each other in the ground if necessary. With these answers I would like to leave it at that today until the next letter from Eggolsheim. 12th

17 Is the flower meadow interesting for the garden owner? Clemens Mehnert Garden owners get very covetous eyes when they bloom, the daisies and parsnips, the meadow pipau and meadow knotweed, the orchid and the marsh marigold. A weekend stroll through summer meadows awakens the desire to bring this abundance of flowers into the home garden. He thinks that in a remote corner of his garden he will be able to free up around 20 m2 of space for a flower meadow. He goes there, buys flower meadow seeds and sows the area, looking forward to his first "own" meadow bellflower. Lo and behold, two types of herbs in the seed mix are particularly prolific; And indeed, one morning he gets up, goes into the garden and the first poppy and cornflower plants are already in bloom. In the weeks that followed, he was delighted by the splendor of the flowers, his neighbors and visitors congratulated him and were delighted with this beautiful meadow. Many of them plan to create a flower meadow in their own garden next year. The flower meadow owner, however, lets the meadow grow until October and only mows the growth after the flowering has ended. A farmer friend of mine does this job for him with a bar mower because the lawn mower is unsuitable for these high crops. The flower meadow lover looks forward to the appearance of his flower meadow in the next spring and summer throughout the winter. At the end of April he is already searching his meadow for the flower heads of daisies, and in May he eagerly awaits poppies and cornflowers. In June at the latest, however, when friends and neighbors ask him what he has done with his flower meadow, he is extremely sad and disappointed about the lack of color in his meadow. This disappointment usually lasts for many years to come and some flower meadow owners never leave it for the rest of their lives. Hope still blossoms in them, but not the meadow in the garden. At least not in the way they imagined. 13th

18 The experience described here, the feeling shown, affects, in my estimation, about 90% of all hobby gardeners who have tried to add a flower meadow to their home garden. "Why do the results in the garden so often not match the diagrams on the packaging of the The answer to this is provided by the following statements: Every meadow is a result of the interplay of location and use. While the composition of a lawn is relatively easy to influence, the location in meadows determines the biodiversity and composition Therefore it is advisable to do this in the garden before sowing the meadow, it is very difficult to do this afterwards. Thoughts of wanting to change the climate in the garden are not to be regarded as realistic. This is all the more so since flower meadows absolutely need full sunlight Flower meadow depends on the species variety of herbs and legumes. However, each location has its own composition of the stock. Alien species introduced with seeds or planting cannot be cultivated in meadows for long periods of time. A meadow stand is in a state of equilibrium with the influences of location and maintenance. The establishment of this equilibrium after sowing takes several years or even decades, which means that it may be a generation before the meadow shows its proper composition. Even the time of sowing and the care in the year of sowing exert a greater influence on the composition of the flower meadow than the seed mixture itself. Small seed quantities of around 5 g / m2 of a suitable flower meadow mixture and constant shortening of the growth in the year of sowing would be necessary to give as many species as possible enough time and to give sunlight for youth development. Under these conditions, however, an initial cultivation of poppy and cornflower is impossible. However, the mentioned maintenance measures are not always sufficiently effective. Slowly developing plant populations are subject to a strong pressure of weeds in fertile locations. This competition from herbs that are undesirable even in meadows can completely suppress a flower meadow seeding after a short time. 14th

19 Meadows of flowers may hardly be entered during the growing season. They are not suitable as a lawn for sunbathing, as a playground for children, but in no case also as a dog toilet. The main benefit for the garden owner is the flowering aspect, i.e. the beautiful appearance during the main flowering period from May to July. Every flower meadow should be mowed at least twice a year. Favorable dates for this are beginning to mid-July and the end of September. The pruning prevents species depletion, promotes less competitive species, reduces nutrient accumulation in the soil and protects the meadow from the risk of fire. The clippings must be removed within a few days after mowing so that the plants below can assimilate again. The high growth of a flower meadow cannot be mowed with conventional lawnmowers. Special bar mowers are necessary for this. If the clippings cannot be fed, they should be composted. The quantities of clippings that arise during a cut are much higher from a flower meadow than from a lawn. The size of the compost store should be based on this. Unsuccessful flower meadows in the garden are a constant source of new weeds in vegetable and perennial beds. For gardens that often suffer from voles, moles or field mice, it should be pointed out that these animal species feel much more comfortable in meadows than in lawns. Even botanical gardens are familiar with the problem of creating species-rich flower meadows. In practice, the dream of the organic meadow as a refuge for endangered animal and plant species is reduced to great joy over the success of such simple species as daisy, meadow bellflower, light carnation and meadow sage. Meadow red clover, devil's claw and cowslips appear after a few years If you are one of the many who can never really look forward to their flower meadow, you should tend a lawn instead and comfort yourself with the fact that the agricultural meadows (arrhenateretalia) with their variety of flowers all over the country are in great abundance Number are available and their existence is not endangered 15

20 valuable tips for seed collectors for our exchange campaign Hermann Fuchs So that the recipients of seeds from our seed exchange campaign can enjoy real and clean seeds, here are a few tips on seed cleaning: Carefully cut off the seed heads or capsules so that no grains fall out. Spread out the harvest in a flat box or cardboard lined with newspaper and deposit in the shade to dry completely. After 4-5 days, put everything in a liter bucket and shake vigorously, remove the seed pods and put them in a second bucket and repeat the procedure. Roughly clean the seeds obtained, then let them run through a sieve and then blow them out in the flat box. Hold the box at an angle downwards so that the seed slides down, then lift it until it starts moving backwards, shaking it slightly to the left and right while blowing. How much this should happen depends entirely on the size and weight of the seeds. Seeds with wings, such as conifers, hosta, eremurus or composites, are placed in a plastic bag in a dry place, let everything slide into a corner and then crunch the contents vigorously. This is followed by further treatment in the flat box. Regarding the lilies and deep fritillary seeds, it should be said that there are more dead seeds than you think and the only thing that helps is blowing, blowing and blowing again, but not like an angry bull, but with feeling and a lot of shaking back and forth. The full seeds don't fly away right away, but the empty dirt, and if you don't believe there's nothing in there, take some of the blown away, hold it up to the light, and you'll find that there's not a trace of it Germ is to be discovered. Finally, something else. Everyone wishes to have good plants in their garden, and all plant lovers are proud of their rarities. However, these are not very common, otherwise they would no longer be uncommon. For this reason, a lot of care and attention must be paid to the seed harvest of this group of plants. If Blah-Blahsaat, which can be had on every corner, is sent in to our seed exchange campaign, the recipient is unnecessarily burdened and, above all, the team that has to carry out the whole campaign.I hope that these tips are helpful for some, because certain guidelines have to be adhered to, which ultimately also strengthens the level of our seed exchange campaign. 16

21 IRIS Marianne Beuchert At the end of September our member, the well-known author Marianne Beuchert, will publish a new book "Enchanted by lilies, seduced by roses" by our member, Eugen Diederichs-Verlag . This flower is a personified goddess who strides down winged over the rainbow from heaven, Zephyr, the god of the west winds wed. The call of the divine plant is flawless, never used by magicians or witches. She is considered noble and lordly but the botanists say that she is a very big deceiver. It seems as if all of her interest in building her flower has been directed towards high elegance and luminous beauty, the fact is that she is one of the most refined seductresses in the vegetable kingdom. Not even her personal perfume is unique. The colored sap mark, which adorns the hanging leaves in many species and, as it were, marks the entrance to their most delicate zones, smells completely different from the rest of the flower. The beard, with which the Iris germanica, which is so familiar to us, adorns itself like the comb of a cockatoo and from which all insects (especially bumblebees) expect the coveted pollen, is nothing but a mockup (just a feather boa or crinoline on the robe of one pretty Woman). Yes, she still uses this beard as a springy pad to press the grumpy bumblebees as tightly as possible against their subordinate fruit pistil, in order to be able to steal a lot of the cousin's pollen, which the bumblebees carry piggyback, on their own scars. The insects only reach their pollen in the throat of the iris and only the deepest depths contain the sweet nectar, without which the bumblebees cannot leave the flower. If they have reached the delicious nectar of a goddess, everything has long happened to ensure the conservation of the species. The divine lady Iris has very important and serious tasks to perform. It is assigned to Juno and often appears in depictions behind the mother of the gods in the carriage. Then she mounted the wings, which she usually wears on her shoes like Hermes, god of merchants and thieves, for better mobility on her shoulders. Juno sends them out with their wishes and orders. Iris, the friendly daughter of Electra, has free access to the people, but also to the mermaids in the depths of the seas and rivers, yes she descends to the princes of Hell on the Styx, to announce the advice of the gods and she leads with easier Hand the souls of women who have fallen asleep to eternal peace. That is why you can find graves decorated with irises in so many Greek cemeteries in Istanbul in the 17th century

22 In Turkey and other Islamic countries, women's graves are completely overflowing with blue irises in May and they are purely stylized on old tombstones, as a sign of femininity. The goddess Iris wears a dress made of dewdrops on all her travels, in which the universe is shimmering, the starry sky is reflected like the infernal fire on the Styx. The image of the iris blossom was a popular motif for textile artists for millennia, who used it to embroider, weave and paint the wedding robes of princesses and kings. Chased in silver and gold, they protected the crusaders from the arrows and swords of the Saracens on the shields, from whose land the most beautiful irises come. That Iris susiana, who has been my unfulfilled dream of giving me a permanent home in my garden since I saw her for the first time at the 1957 Cologne Federal Garden Show. I can never take a train across the Rhine Bridge to Cologne without suddenly feeling transported back to the moment we first met. That absolute summer drought-loving Iris susiana, the "lady in mourning", is one of the most unusual and moving figures of the plant kingdom in my eyes. She surrounds herself with an aura of dignity, beauty and majesty. The sight of you is as puzzling as that of a sphinx, as melancholy as a Largo by Handel and tastes like heavy Bordeaux on the tongue. Does she actually smell? I don't know, in our rare encounters I always looked at her deeply, unable to ask any questions. That French lily, the "fleur du Lys", with which the crusaders and kings of France adorned their coats of arms, is in fact not a lily, but Iris pseudacorus, the yellow water sword lily. They used to surround the streams and swampy meadows of all of Central Europe in abundance and are said to be found on the Tibetan highlands just as I found them in Hangzhou in western China, where they were referred to as indigenous to me in the botanical garden. They have known since time immemorial what we consider to be the very latest findings of biologists: that Iris pseudacorus has the power to biologically clean polluted waters, that it is an inexpensive and beautiful natural treatment plant for which you only have the space and the courage needs to use it. But how did this iris come to be the coat of arms of France? Perhaps because it was so easy to stylize graphically. Or is the story of King Clovis correct, who fought against the Merovingians near Cologne in the 6th century and when the luck of the battle threatened to abandon him, he only saw his rescue in an escape across the Rhine. But how do you get over? Then he found the yellow iris blooming a little upstream on a sandbank in the stream, giving him a sign that at this point the water was shallow enough and a passage was possible. 18th

23 The earliest known transport of plants is that of Thutmose I. From his war against the Syrians in 1950 BC he brought A rich collection of plants and had them depicted as a bas-relief in the innermost district of the Temple of Karnak in the top-secret botanical chamber. A homage to the local gods that the Egypt tourist can still marvel at today, four thousand years later. This bas-relief also depicts a proud iris, jointly identified by Egyptologists and botanists as Iris oncocyclus. What enormous botanical booty must Thutmose have towed away when so numerous plants survived the miserable transport conditions and developed to bloom in other climatic regions? What made him do it? The desire to decorate the altars of the Egyptian deities or to serve the medicine that was practiced as a secret science in the monasteries? What may have ended up in the cupboards, pressed and dried, to serve as a reservoir for the coveted love items? The Japanese Iris kaempferi reached Europe without warfare, thanks to two men: the doctor Engelbert Kämpfer from Lemgo and the natural scientist Philipp Franz von Siebold, a native of Bavaria. They got their scientific name after the universally educated traveler who first reported on them in the "amoenitates" (1712). It is the most fairy and feminine of the divine flowers, but for the Japanese it is the symbol of the consecration of boys because of its sword-shaped leaves. Compared to the Iris germanica, which we are so familiar with and which we will speak of later, it loves a life in the swamp and sun. But it is not just any marsh plant, not suitable for a colorfully mixed eco-tank, any wet biotope. She would like to stand in the water, but not in all seasons, and certainly not in the flowing water. The air of the inimitably special, very Asian, with which they surround themselves especially in the heyday, makes them completely unsuitable for community with swamp forget-me-nots or marigolds. She needs the isolation. If you want her, you have to make up your mind to offer her a dignified home in the garden, a somewhat separate part, technically well prepared for her, and to arrange your travel plans in such a way that you can be in the one week of the year when she blooms , too, is really to their admiring contemplation at home. Europe got to know this iris in the time of the Impressionists and that quickly fleeting beauty that their pictures tried to capture is also inherent in this flower and only lasts in the feeling and in the memory of the beholder. The irises, which, like the lilies and orchids, belong to the adaptable and inventive monocot plants, are at home in almost all of the northern hemisphere in the most varied of manifestations. As their main distribution areas, they have two fundamentally different 19

24 areas. On the one hand, a large part of the clan lives in the summer-dry area around the Mediterranean Sea and in the adjacent mountains and deserts; the second, more or less moisture-loving part of the family has settled from Central Europe to East Asia and also in North America in regions where the In summer the deciduous forest turns green and winters are sometimes uncomfortably cold. They have their rest period in winter, the irises on the Mediterranean lazily sleep through the hot summer. For this time of silence, both have built their supplies in thickened roots, rhizomes or in onions. Many of them can be frugal gardeners for decades if you take away from them what they do not like, water or drought at the wrong time. While the standard work "Hortus Eychstettensis" already listed 27 species of iris in 1605, and in one of the earliest garden catalogs, that of William Lucas in 1677, three different irises were offered for sale Specialist nurseries would be economically viable. Because in our »century of breeding«, the Americans of the west coast in particular have adopted the Iris germanica as their favorite child. At the beginning of this century, the Englishman W. R. Dykes of the Royal Horticultural Society published an unprecedented magnificent work "The Genus Iris". As scientifically accurate as this book was, he swam on the wave of Art Nouveau, and particularly valued Iris alongside lilies and water lilies. While Dykes had dealt intensively with the wild forms and their naming, resourceful laypeople soon discovered the great variety of Iris germanica with targeted breeding. The German botanist Peter Werckmeister provided the theory. For centuries, the species and its varieties were cultivated in monastery and medicinal gardens, in their clear blue-violet shape with a towering silky dome above velvety hanging leaves. Less for the sake of beauty than for its many medical uses. The area around Florence in particular is still known today for the »poudre d'iris«. The violet-scented root is added to beauty products. The mild skin irritation causes a slight reddening of the face, which, without being harmful, lasts for several days. In a travelogue from the Biedermeier period it says: "And travelers like to buy it from the industrial nuns." Numerous iris societies around the world were now occupied with the cultivation of new color variants, stronger texture of the petals and slightly varied flower shapes. During the period in which America rose to become a world political power, it also became the world power of iris growers. Democrats or Republicans, the citizens of this continent have thoroughly transformed Europe's royal heraldic flower. The color palette of the flowers now goes from 20