Who is the best doctor for thyroid gland

Thyroid disease

What are the tasks of the thyroid gland?

The thyroid is a hormonal gland attached to the thyroid cartilage in the larynx. It is an organ that, through its hormones, influences the metabolic activity of many tissues in the body. It has, above all, stimulating effects on development and growth, the cardiovascular system, respiratory and intestinal activity or the nervous system.

What thyroid hormones are there?

The thyroid releases two different hormones into the bloodstream. On the one hand there is triiodothyronine (T3) and on the other hand thyroxine (T4). The T3 is the more active hormone with the stronger effect and can be produced in the body from T4. The T4, on the other hand, remains in the body longer than the T3 and thus forms a reservoir. Iodine is an important component of both hormones.

An overview of important thyroid diseases

Thyroid diseases can be roughly divided into functional disorders and structural changes. These can occur both together and in isolation from one another. The structural change is either an enlargement (goiter) or local changes, such as Thyroid nodules, which can be benign or to Thyroid cancer .

The malfunctions are broken down into Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) and the Overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) . Underactive is most often caused by a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by one's own immune system ( Hashimoto's thyroiditis ).

The hyperfunction can also be caused by an autoimmune process (Graves' disease), but is also often associated with "hot" nodes, that is, very active, autonomous thyroid tissue.

What symptoms cause thyroid disease?

If a disease of the thyroid gland is not noticeable due to structural changes, it is often the problems that arise due to the hormone excess or the undersupply.

An overactive thyroid shows itself mainly through an increased energy expenditure of the whole body. Patients often complain of restlessness, sweating, tremors, sleep disorders, Racing heart or weight loss with increased appetite.

Some symptoms, such as difficulty concentrating, or muscle weakness Hair loss , can occur in both underactive and overactive thyroid gland.

Otherwise, the underactive thyroid becomes noticeable through generally low physical activity. These include fatigue, freezing, weight gain, loss of libido, general listlessness and depression.

Which thyroid levels are normal?

The standard Thyroid diagnostics includes, in addition to the clinical examination and ultrasound, the determination of the basal TSH, a regulatory hormone originating from the pituitary gland, as well as, if required, additionally fT3 and fT4 ("f" stands for free, i.e. directly available to the body ).

Due to its sensitivity, basal TSH is particularly suitable for screening, with a normal range of 0.3-4.0 mU / l. Values ​​above 4.0 mU / l indicate hypofunction, values ​​below 0.3 mU / l indicate overfunction.

How are thyroid disorders treated?

As far as therapy is concerned, if the thyroid gland is underactive, it is usually limited to drug therapy. Missing thyroid hormone is administered as a tablet (L-thyroxine).

In the case of overfunction, the procedure is different. At a Graves disease Drug therapy is also the standard procedure (anti-thyroid drugs). In the case of functional autonomy, which is often associated with lumps or goiter, one usually occurs Thyroid surgery , or Radioiodine therapy .

How can you prevent thyroid disease?

It is difficult to make a general statement about the prevention of thyroid disease. On the one hand, the diseases are of very different types and, on the other hand, in many cases no effective prophylaxis has been scientifically proven.

There is a tendency in Germany to have the problem of consuming too little iodine. It is therefore generally recommended to buy iodized table salt in order to prevent possible hypothyroidism.

Which doctor is responsible for the thyroid gland?

The diagnosis of thyroid diseases by means of Scintigraphy is in the hands of nuclear medicine professionals. The diagnosis is carried out on an outpatient basis by the nuclear medicine practitioner in private practice or in the outpatient thyroid consultation hour of the nuclear department in hospitals. If radioiodine therapy proves necessary, the patient remains under the treatment of nuclear medicine specialists.

If the node is to be surgically removed, a transfer is made to endocrine surgeon . If drug treatment is an option, the case falls within the remit of internists. A general internist or endocrinologist can be considered.

We help you to find an expert for your illness. All listed doctors and clinics have been checked by us for their outstanding specialization in the field of thyroid nodules and are awaiting your inquiry or your treatment request.


Basic textbook internal medicine; Upholstery, Krautzig; 5th edition Urban & Fischer Verlag

Basics of Endocrinology; Marischler; 2nd edition Urban & Fischer Verlag

Forum Thyroid e.V.