What are homologous chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes

We deal with homologous chromosomes in this article. We will explain to you what is meant by homologous chromosomes and what they are used for. This article belongs to our field of biology or genetics.

Chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic make-up. They consist of a thread of DNA and proteins. During cell division, the chromosomes appear in their transport form and are shortened by their spiralization. As a result, the chromatin threads take on a clearly defined shape that can be recognized by light microscopy.

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Homologous Chromosome Explanation

The DNA thread of a single chromosome can be several inches long. The cell nucleus - in which the chromosomes are located - has a diameter of about 10 ┬Ám. A chromosome consists (before division) of two chromatids connected by a centromere. The following graphic shows the structure:

The term homologous chromosome refers to a chromosome that corresponds to another chromosome in terms of shape and sequence of genes. Each diploid cell has a set of homologous chromosomes - one from the father and one from the mother. Exceptions are the sex chromosomes of men, which are known as heterologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes can form pairs of chromosomes.

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