What is the name of this anime 1

What is an anime anyway?

Japanese cartoons are referred to as anime, which due to their characteristic representation differ significantly from the well-known cartoons (mostly USA) and can therefore be viewed as a separate art form together with manga, the stationary print version. Contrary to the still prevailing opinion in Germany that "Anime are for children", Anime are produced for all age groups. Which leads to further prejudices if this fact is not known and if age ratings are disregarded.

Anime - the term[1]

In contrast to the predominantly monochrome manga, the viewer experiences a veritable firework of colors in the anime. Bright, often unnatural and exaggerated coloring is sometimes even a trademark of Japanese cartoons, just as the big googly eyes are characteristic of the drawing style itself.[2]

The term "anime" does not come from the Japanese language. It is a derivation from the English term "animation". It thus encompasses the entirety of “animated images.” In fact, the term itself is used in Japan as a designation for all drawn or computer-animated films, regardless of whether they come from home or abroad. The property of distinguishing Japanese cartoons from American, European and similar cartoons is only possessed by the term in foreign countries - as seen from Japan.[3] In Japan itself, the terms "Manga-Eiga" ("Manga-Film") were used for a long time.[4] or "Doga" used for animation productions. These terms are actually names for a certain advance in sketch drawing for animated films.[5] The term still appears in the names of some cartoon studios, e.g. "Toei Doga".

Like manga, anime cannot be seen as a single genre, but rather as a representation of a variety of genres. It can also be observed here that, regardless of the genre, anime series and films can be aimed at a wide variety of target groups.[6]

History and Development of Anime in Japan[1]

The beginnings

According to the Japanese Internet news portal “Asahi.com”, Japanese character animation began in the first decade of the 20th century. A three-second clip found in Kyoto is believed to be the origin of the anime. The 50 individual images show a boy in a sailor suit who is drawing characters with the meaning “moving images” on a board, then turns around to the audience and waves.[7]

However, according to most sources, the development of Japanese animation began after 1910 when the first American and French animated films were shown in Japan. According to animation scientist Jerry Beck, draftsmen initially made experiments in black and white, soundless and with an average of five minutes playing time. In 1917, after the artist Oten Shimokawa, this source brought out the first Japanese cartoon with the short film “Mukuzu Imokawa” (“The Porter”).[8] Just one year later, in 1918, Seitaro Kitayama's first Japanese animation import came to Europe with “Momotaro” (“Peach Boy”). Sound wasn't given to animated films until the early 1930s.[9]

The first animation studio was founded in 1921 by Seitaro Kitayama. He called it "Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo" ("Kitayama Film Factory") and worked with it mainly for the government. Mainly educational films and industrial works were produced. When the great Kanto earthquake struck Japan in 1923 and destroyed evidence of the early animated films, the studio was also destroyed.[10] The oldest film still in existence is "Obasuteyama" ("The Mountain Where Old Women Are Left Behind")[11] by Sanae Yamamoto from 1924 and 1925.[12]

Also in the 1920s, the technique of cel animation used in Japanese cartoons to this day[13] introduced. "Importer" was Yasuji Murata, who had studied western animation techniques. Another “pioneer” of this time was Noburo Ofuji, who produced nine films between 1926 and 1930. The first Japanese animation film with a specially composed soundtrack goes back to him: "Black Kitty".[14]

War and post-war period

Up until the beginning of World War II, according to Beck, most Japanese cartoons were adaptations of popular folk tales and legends. From the 1930s, however, the medium of animation was increasingly used for propaganda. Yasuji Murata made his film "Sora no Momotaro" as early as 1931[15] (Momotaro from Heaven) who glorified Japan's intervention in disputes. As a fighter pilot, Momotaro, a folk hero, appeases a war between penguins and albatrosses.

Between 1933 and 1934 Murata directed the animated film adaptation of the popular manga "Norakuro" ("The Black Dog") by Shiho Tagawa.[16] As the 1930s progressed, anti-Western cartoons began to appear on the market.[17] When the military took over government in 1937, more films were produced that were intended to strengthen the national spirit.[18] In the further course of the war, real films were increasingly directed at adults for propaganda purposes, so that the animation industry now increasingly devoted itself to families and children. Caricatures of important political figures from the hostile countries stood as villains against cute Japanese cartoon heroes.[19] Kenzo Masaoka created a milestone during this time with his film "The Spider and the Tulip". Here a ladybug girl stands opposite a spider - with a typical western straw hat. It escapes after the spider is exposed to a violent storm. In doing so, “the enemy” also gains the audience's sympathy.[20]

At the end of World War II, practically no Japanese animation was produced: the funds were lacking. Because the draftsman stuck to the "traditional" style, the look of Japanese cartoon by the late 1940s had not yet moved away from the style of the 1930s.[21] At the beginning of the 1950s, the style of animation had adapted to the American one, but it was still black and white. It was not until 1955 that the first colored Japanese cartoons were released in cinemas.[22]

The 1950s and 1960s

In 1951 the film company "Toei" was founded. In 1955 an animation department was added. Over the years, this developed into the first leading Japanese animation studio[23] and still produces today. The following years are often cited as the beginning of the actual Japanese animation industry. Similar to the Disney studios, Toei began to bring out a full-length color film every year, starting with the "Hakuja den" released in 1958[24] ("The White Snake"), which came to the USA in 1961 as the first anime under the title "Panda and the magic serpent".[25]

After Toei initially adhered to the film adaptation of Japanese legends and fairy tales, the studio experimented between 1960 and 1970 with producing animes based on European folk tales. Popular science fiction mangas were also animated and had great success.[26]

In 1959, the famous manga-ka Osamu Tezuka entered the animation film stage through Toei Studios. He worked on the annual feature films, but in 1962 he decided to found his own studio: The Mushi Production Company. In 1963 his popular manga "Astro Boy" came out as a TV series and was licensed in the USA at the end of the same year. In Japan the series ran for four years in a row and laid the foundation for Japan's TV animation industry; In 1980 Tezuka re-produced them in color with his new studio. Mushi Productions was one of the most important studios through the 1960s. Tezuka's series "Kimba the White Lion" was Japan's first color TV animated series[27] and an export hit all over the world.

The 1970s and 80s

TV animation prevailed throughout the 1970s, according to Beck. However, a separate feature film was produced for most of the successful TV series. During this time, the first science fiction and with them the typically Japanese "Mecha series" came onto the market, as well as the first romances designed for young people.[28] Many of these series later reached Germany, e.g. "Mobile Suit Gundam" and "Lady Oscar".[29] This recipe for success was retained in the 1980s; popular mangas were filmed directly for video sales or as TV series. Akira Toryama's famous hit manga "Dragon Ball", for example, provided inspiration for several TV adaptations.[30]

At that time the strategy was the OVAs[31] Developed: An episode or a few episodes of an anime were released directly on video. If the sales figures were right, more episodes or a TV series were produced, in some cases even a movie.[32]

After Hayao Miyazaki's appearance as a screenwriter, character designer, draftsman and director in 1979, another milestone was set in the Japanese animation industry. Miyazaki produced several major cartoons in various studios and then started his own:

Studio Ghibli, one of the most famous and important Japanese animation studios to this day.[33] Another important protagonist in anime history was and is Katsuhiro Otomo. He brought out his manga "Akira" as a film in 1988 and had great success with it.[34]

The 1990s until today

The video game industry hit the scene in the late 1990s. Anime series based on the concept of popular computer and console games became particularly popular with male children. This led to the boom of the "Pokémon" series, which was also very successful in Germany. Anime adaptations of popular Shoujo mangas have been designed for girls.[35] The possibilities of computer-controlled animation also gained more and more influence on the anime scene. Japanese animation studios today work with both the more "traditional" cel animation and the latest computer technology. At the beginning of the new millennium, Japanese screens were dominated by cinema adaptations of the most popular children's series. However, especially in recent years, Miyazaki and anime films for older audiences have come to the fore. The TV productions range across all genres.[36] The Japanese animation industry today often works very closely with the American one.[37]

Anime in Germany[1]

In fact, the import of Japanese cartoons to Germany began early on. However, there was still no talk of anime in this country. The term was not widely used until the late 1990s. As early as 1961, two years after its production, the first anime movie came to Germany with “The Magician and the Bandits” (original title: “Shonen sarutobi Sasuke”).[38] The first anime TV series was broadcast in this country in 1968. However, only 3 episodes of "Speed ​​Racer" (original title: "Mach Go Go Go") were broadcast. The series was too brutal, according to concerned parents, and so it was canceled.[39] But as early as the late 1970s, many series in the afternoon programs of German TV stations had origins in Asia. In some cases it was outsourcing by western companies, as animation production in Asia was a lot cheaper.[40]

Anime on German television

But the fact that the Japanese drawing studios borrowed from European literature and culture made their animation products popular in Germany. For example, from the mid-1970s onwards, Nippon Animation produced animated adaptations of popular international children's book classics with the “World Masterpiece Theater” series. Responsible were Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata, the later founders of Studio Ghibli.[41] Inquiries from acquaintances suggest that many of today's young adults saw one or more of these series in their childhood. In fact, the series of the World Masterpiece Theater ran with great success in Germany. Starting with “Heidi” (“Alps no Shoujo Heidi”, 1974), broadcast for the first time in 1977, followed, to name but a few well-known examples: “Niklaas, a boy from Flanders (“ Flanders no Inu ”, 1975), "Anne with the red hair" ("Akage no Anne", 1979), "Die Kinder vom Berghof" ("Alps monogatari - watashi no Anette", 1983), "Sara, the little princess" ("Shokojo Sara", 1985 ),[42] "Peter Pan" ("Peter Pan no boken", 1989) and "Mrs Jo and her happy family" (Wakakusa monogatari - Nan to Jo sensei ", 1993). The last anime in the series produced to date, "Remi, the homeless girl (" Ie naki ni Remi ", 1997), was prematurely discontinued.[43]

According to MangasZene editor Steffi Holzer, the success of these Japanese cartoon adaptations abroad is primarily based on the development of the characters. All of the series are about children who have to "struggle" on their own. Most of the series focus on girls, who appear strong but also gentle.[44] Another factor is, according to our own observation and taken up in a course by Prof. Dr. Nagl at the Media University, the optical design of the protagonists. The characters of the World Masterpiece Theater Anime also have googly eyes, but not nearly as extreme as is the case in other series. In fact, the characters are largely adapted to the area in which the underlying novel takes place. However, the faces are stylized in such a way that viewers from all over the world can identify with the protagonists. Heidi, for example, could just as easily be of Asian or Swiss origin.

After the success of this and similar Japanese import series, more and more animes were broadcast in Germany. From 1989 onwards there were also such series on private channels that were aimed at a somewhat older audience. So series like "Mila Superstar" ("Attack No. 1") and "Saber Rider and the Star Sheriffs" ("Sei Jushi Bismarck") gradually achieved a kind of "cult status".[45] Public broadcasters also tried Japanese cartoon imports. The first season of the “Magical Girl” series “Sailor Moon” (“Bishojo senshi Sailor Moon”) was initially shown from 1994 to 1995 on ZDF. It was not until 1997 that the then relatively new broadcaster RTL II took over the license for the series and also broadcast the 4 following seasons.[46] Due to the success of this and the first "Dragon Ball" series, anime became a permanent - and now specially named - part of the afternoon program.

The series "Pokemon" deserves special mention at this point, a production that was primarily produced to market the Game Boy games of the same name. After its start in Germany on RTL II, the series brought the station at times ratings of 80% market share. That of the series has proven itself: In a fantasy world there are 150 (or 151) types of "monsters" that are collected by people in order to compete against each other. As the show's fan base increased, these 150 creatures became the main topic of conversation, and of course to know them all by name one had to watch the show.[47] The great success of the series gave the anime another boost in Germany.

Today, especially the series that are also successful in Japan are licensed in Germany by RTL II. Less known series, but popular among insiders, can be found at rather atypical broadcasting locations such as the music channels VIVA and MTV, as well as the French "cultural channel" ARTE and the RTL subsidiary channel VOX. There they are usually broadcast at night.

Purchase videos and DVDs

This TV presence, which fans sometimes perceive as inadequate, has made the consumer media market sector all the more popular today. Many anime series are only brought to the German market on video and DVD, here too you can see the “OVA tactics” described above.[48] In the meantime, the "Anime Connection of Germany", or "A.C.O.G." for short, has emerged as the market leader for the distribution of this media in Germany.[49]

Anime in German cinema

According to the anime information wiki “Aniki”, 25-30 full-length anime have been shown in German cinemas since “The Magician and the Bandits”. The main highlights were Katsuhiro Otomo's “Akira” in 1991, the cyberpunk film “Ghost in the Shell” based on the hit manga by Masamune Shirow in 1997, the movies for the “Pokémon” TV series and the Studio Ghibli films “Princess Mononoke” "(2001)," Spirited Away "(2003) and" The moving castle "(2005).

features[1]

A typical feature of Japanese cartoons, like manga, are the large eyes. They contribute significantly to conveying the character of a character. According to Bob Bane, who works for the magazine AnimaniA, the Japanese use the myth of the eye as a “mirror to the soul”.[50] The light reflections in the large pupils are also used in the anime as a means of conveying emotions. This can be observed very well for yourself: If the white dots are moving, the figure is excited or sad.By omitting the reflections, an impotent or soulless state of the figure is often conveyed.

In contrast to the mangas, which are kept monochrome, the anime is often a veritable firework of colors. These, too, usually serve to convey the character traits of a character. Specific properties are assigned to the eyes and even the hair colors of the protagonists. For example, according to Lars Erbstößer and Steffi Holzer, the blonde hair, which is unusual for the Japanese, stands for freedom from strict conventions, purity and sincerity. In contrast, black, as a “typically Asian” hair color, conveys tradition, maturity and seriousness.[51] But "more artificial" colors such as green, blue, purple and pink are also used in the hair of the anime characters.[52] Japanese cartoons are often perceived as impulsive and expressive, not infrequently as "exaggerated". In fact, according to Bane, the anime seems to place more emphasis on impression than realism.[53] Explosions, shadows, even the characters themselves are not about physical or anatomical correctness, but about conveying dynamism. Photorealism is left out in order to better appeal to the viewer's imagination and emotions.[54] The use of so-called "speed lines" can be observed especially in older animes. These lines are commonly used in comics to convey movement. But this stylistic device was also used in the animation industry before computer technology opened up new ways of conveying dynamism.[55] Anime is sometimes perceived as "choppy" by the viewer. This is also due to the fact that the Japanese artists leave out the western, photo-realistic style in favor of expressive moments.[56] Some animes seem like a “liquefaction” of their manga template, in which the individual images and their impression on the viewer are in the foreground. In return, many mangas are almost “cinematic”. So the Japanese animators are not interested in conveying realism. Rather, through strong stylization on the one hand and loving attention to detail on the other, the viewer should be able to escape from reality in which above all human emotions are conveyed.[57]

Like any art form, anime is also influenced by the culture in which it is created. In the most varied of animations you can often find an elegance of movements reminiscent of Asian martial arts. In addition, you can still discover more or less hidden influences of Japanese or generally Asian mythology in many animes. Elaborate armor from anime heroes is based on the traditional robes of the samurai and is depicted even more exaggerated.[58] Sometimes this gives the viewer the impression that the armor is more for the impressive appearance of the figure than for actual protection in combat.

The partially explicit content is likely to be a characteristic as well as a point of contention for Japanese animation. The medium of anime is often accused of having too many depictions of sex and violence. In fact, the Japanese like to draw a little more freely, and the mostly unrealistic proportions also contribute to the formation of prejudices. Erotic nude scenes belong to a genre of their own (hentai[59]) as well as to different genres within the anime designed for adults. This also includes the so-called “pantyshots”: brief moments in a scene in which you can see the panties of a protagonist. These shots are relatively independent of genre. You can find them in action series as well as in fantasy or everyday animes. An article in the magazine AnimaniA makes critics of Japanese animated eroticism think that no real person is humiliated in front of the camera with drawn pornographic content.[60] The cultural background to this feature of Japanese animation is found in the way people live in modern Japan. There is tremendous pressure on the average Japanese from childhood. Representations of violence serve to reduce stress, erotic representations are intended to relax.[61]

Further prejudices against the Asian art of drawing are dealt with in the chapter “Prejudices - justified or not?”.[62]

Genres

see main article genre

Creation of an anime[1]

The first cartoons were made on paper, both in Japan and the rest of the world. The “original artist” of Japanese animation introduced by Jerry Beck, Oten Shimokawa, is said to have tried to film drawings from a blackboard on which he had drawn with chalk. Since this failed, he drew directly on film strips with Indian ink in the next attempt.[63] Today, according to the former AnimaniA editor Ralf Erbstößer, around 30 TV series and 2 films are produced annually in larger animation studios. The employees of the studio are divided into different departments. For example, there are separate departments for animation and painting, an art and film department, production and direction, as well as publication and merchandising departments, and areas for committee and administration.[64]

planning

An anime project usually begins with a script and a storyboard. This is understood to mean sketchy, but detailed drawings of the respective shots of the film, from which an overall sequence can already be recognized. The entire drawing process is based on this storyboard. 290 This is the most complex part of the production, since a separate individual image has to be made for practically every movement in the later film. Either computer assistance or the more traditional technique of "cel animation" (or a mixture of both) is used here.

Cels

The animation technique understands a “cel”, an abbreviation for “celluloid”, to be a film on which a part of the later individual image is drawn. A cel either contains the entire individual image, or the overall image is created by superimposing several such films on a solid background, of which only individual ones have to be exchanged for the subsequent individual images in order to achieve the animation effect.

The film combinations are photographed individually and thus result in the continuous film.[65] An episode of a TV anime usually contains 3 cels per second, for a total of around 4000 cels. However, this is the minimum number of individual images per second that the human eye can still perceive as flowing movement. For movies, for example, significantly more (10-20 cels per second) are used.[66]

Cels are a coveted collector's item among anime fans. However, due to their uniqueness, they are very expensive, which makes collecting them a luxury.[67]

Use of computer graphics

In times of the most modern technology, the creation of animations by computers is not only simplified, but can also be made more impressive. There are various ways to technically intervene in normal cel animation. Some examples:

3D objects

One example of this are the “Digitations” in the TV series “Digimon”. The otherwise two-dimensional character is displayed as a 3D figure. This creates a “futuristic” impression on the viewer, in keeping with the general theme of the series, in which children get lost in a digital world. 3D objects can also be integrated into more traditional animes, such as the Studio Ghibli film Princess Mononoke. The use of these objects is only intended to convey a greater depth of animation.

Mapping

Traditionally, static watercolor backgrounds are used in animes.[68] However, if a scene is to appear particularly dynamic, animation studios sometimes use mapping technology. A three-dimensional model of the terrain in which the scene takes place is created on the computer. Sometimes this has several layers, for example a mountain that is supposed to come closer when moving. During the animation process, these layers are then automatically moved in such a way that the desired effect is achieved.[69]

Digital coloring

For this process, the outlines of the drawn scenes are scanned and digitized. The areas of the now digital drawing can be colored on the computer screen. One advantage of this technique is that the colors remain the same, as they do not have to be touched and compared with previous scenes.[70]

About the possibilities offered by digital animation, says Hiroaki Ishii, the digital colorist responsible for the film “Princess Mononoke” by Studio Ghibli: “(...) Now that we can produce everything digitally, we should set ourselves certain limits, otherwise we move further and further away from the slide animation. (...) Everything depends on how you use these techniques. "[71] Masao Maruyama, producer at the animation studio “Madhouse”, expressed similar concerns in an interview for the magazine AnimaniA: “The hallmark of animated films from Japan is basically its two-dimensionality. So the question is whether the introduction of 3D elements in anime does not lead to the typical characteristics of the medium being lost. In my opinion it is important to adapt the 3D elements to the 2D anime. "[72]