What is tempo and harmony in music

Basic concepts

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There are now some basic terms that are not intended as a complete definition in the sense of acoustics, but for a further understanding of the work.

music is the orderly arrangement of sounds. A sound is the result of regular air oscillations - in contrast to the noise that is formed from irregular air oscillations. The smallest unit of music is the tone. A volume is a sound with a certain duration, height, volume and timbre [#! enc! #].

  • The pitch can be measured physically and depends on the oscillation frequency. The higher the frequency of an oscillation, the higher the tone [#! Enc! #].
  • volume is the strength of a sound perception; the physically appropriate size is the amplitude [#! muslex! #]. In the medium of air, the amplitude of a sound wave corresponds to the strength of the moving air molecules.
  • The Timbre is the additional aspect in addition to the previously mentioned quantities that a sound has. The sounds of certain musical instruments, regardless of their fundamental frequency, have areas of amplified partial vibrations that are tied to fixed frequency ranges. With increasing sound strength and the same pitch, the maximum intensity shifts to partial vibrations of higher ordinal numbers [#! Muslex! #]. If you produce a tone with the same pitch and the same volume on two different instruments, they will sound different because not only does the pure tone sound, but also, depending on the instrument, parts of higher frequencies sound. These are mainly multiples of the fundamental frequency, so-called overtones. The different timbres are thus distinguished by the overtones. The physical representation of timbre is therefore also the waveform.

There are three basic systems of order for music: harmony, melody and rhythm.

is the simultaneous sounding of several sounds, the structure of the tones [#! muslex! #].
is the linear arrangement of tones, i.e. an ordered sequence of tones in certain pitches and durations, which are linked to one another in a temporal context in such a way that they result in a coherent musical expression [#! enc! #].
is closely related to the melody, since it is also related to the time. Rhythm indicates the dynamics of the music in relation to time [#! Enc! #]. The components of rhythm are beat, meter and tempo.
  • Tact groups the note values ​​into a unit, which is based on a regularly recurring reference scheme of changing rhythmic shapes (e.g. three-quarter time) [#! muslex! #].
  • The meter in turn regulates the intonation within the measure. For example, in three-four time the first quarter is strongly emphasized, the second not at all and the third weakly emphasized [#! Enc! #].
  • tempo indicates the absolute duration of the note values ​​[#! muslex! #]. Note values ​​only establish speed relationships with one another, but there is no exact basic speed that represents the tempo.

Next:Digitized music Up:Formalization Previous:Previous work & nbsp Contents & nbsp indexMarkus Fruehwirth