How is Panjab University of Law

Wolfgang-Peter Zingel
South Asia Institute at Heidelberg University, Department of International Economic and Development Policy

PAKISTAN - social structure
A shortened version was published in Munzinger-Archiv / Länder aktuell, Ravensburg, 25/97. Deviations from the print version in square brackets: [...].

population: The population of Pakistan is mainly composed of Indo-European ethnic groups who speak the languages ​​of Indian (Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi), Iranian (Pushto, Baluchi), Dravidian (Brahui) and smaller language families (Dard languages). There are no exact numbers; the census data on the mother tongue can be used as an approximation for the ethnic composition. After the partition of India (1947), the Urdu-speaking immigrants mainly from what is now the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (mohajirin) have been concentrated in Karachi ever since. The more than 3 million Afghans, mostly Pashtuns, who fled the Soviets between 1979 and 1989, were taken in mainly in the border-crossing Pashtu areas of the NWFP and Baluchistan as well as in Karachi; by the end of 1996, more than half had declined, but new refugees came as a result of the civil war.

The 1991 census was canceled due to gross irregularities; the repetition scheduled for March / April 1994 was temporarily postponed indefinitely; in November 1996, the census was set for January 1997 by the transitional government. Reliable new information is therefore not available. The basis of "current" figures, mostly based on official information, is still the census of 1981 and some microcensuses. According to the official update, the population was 132 million in 1996, four times as many as at the time of independence. The population density would be 165 inhabitants / km on average2: Assuming a uniform population increase in Punjab 360, Sind 211, NWFP 212, Balochistan 20, the tribal areas of FATA 125 and in the area of ​​the capital Islamabad 552. In November 1996, the interim government Mairaj Khalid announced a new census in January 1997, which can hardly be realized in the short preparation time.

32% of the population live in cities (1993). The annual population increase is given as 3.0%. In 1981, 45% of the population was under 15 years old, 39% between the ages of 15-45 years.

languages: The national language Urdu is only spoken by (1981) 7.6% of the population as a mother tongue, but it is generally understood to a greater or lesser extent. English is still used as the business, official and educational language and is to be replaced by the Urdu constitution. The regional languages ​​Punjabi (48.2%), Sindhi (11.8%), Pushto (13.1%) and Baluchi (3.0%) and in the border area of ​​Punjab and Sind the Siraiki (9th , 8%), locally also Gujarati, Brahui and other languages. All languages ​​(except English) are written with Arabic-Persian characters.

Of the regional languages, only Sindhi is more widely used as a written language. The languages ​​of education are also Arabic (Koran) and Persian (literature). The distribution areas of the regional languages ​​do not coincide with the provinces; Urdu is mainly spoken in Karachi.

Social facilities

Social legislation: Outside the state sector and some large private companies, social security is still provided by the family. The provisions of social legislation are far from being complied with. An ordinance of 1965 regulates the entitlement of employees to cash benefits and benefits in kind in the event of illness, accidents at work, old age and disability through state funds (from contributions from employees and employers); Support for children, women, offenders and the disabled is provided by the National Council of Social Welfare, old age care by the state life insurance company (since 1976).

The "Social Action Program" (SAP) initiated by the Nawaz Sharif government in 1992-93 and scheduled to run for three years was extended by the Benazir Bhutto government and incorporated into the 1993-98 five-year plan. It aims to improve primary school education, basic health care, nutrition, family planning, and rural water and sanitation. The 1995-96 Economic Survey shows that the target was almost entirely achieved - numbers that should be revised after the fall of the Benazir Bhutto government. The controversial "Public Transport Scheme" ("Yellow Cabs") and "Self Employment Scheme" of the Nawaz Sharif government had already been terminated in 1993 by the Moeen Qureshi government.

Healthcare: There is a lack of doctors, especially in rural areas. In 1995, according to official information, there were 823 hospitals with 85,552 beds and a further 10,744 health facilities, from the outpatient departments (dispensaries) to the rural health centers. In 1995 there were 69,694 doctors, 2,753 dentists, 4,277 health advisors (lady health visitors), 20,869 midwives and 22,531 registered nurses; a large number of doctors practice abroad. Infant mortality fell from 142 per 1,000 births since 1970 to 885 in 1993; child mortality at 137 is among the highest in the world.

Law and justice: In civil law, the legal provisions of the common law of the colonial era (renewed and simplified) essentially apply. In family and inheritance law, religious law applies, for Muslims according to the Sunni rite (sharia). According to the 1973 Constitution, the courts are structured as follows: Supreme Court of Pakistan, based in Islamabad, consisting of the Chief Justice and other judges, all appointed by the President. The Supreme Court is the highest appellate court; it can also rule on disputes between two governments (federal and / or province (s)). There is a High Court in every province as an appeal instance. There are also separate administrative courts. With the repeal of martial law on December 30, 1985, the military courts were also dissolved and a number of special provisions repealed. The Control of Narcotic Substances Ordinance, 1995, introduced the death road for drug trafficking.

Since 1976 there have been separate chambers at the courts, the "Shariat Benches", which judge according to Islamic law; In 1980 the "Federal Shariat Court" was set up to check the compatibility of laws and other legal provisions with the Koran. In 1988 the sharia determined as the highest law of the country.

religion: 97% of the population are Muslim, mostly Sunni; the proportion of Shiites is estimated at 15% to 20%. The Ahmadiyyas were declared a non-Islamic sect in 1974; in the last census in 1981 it was 0.1 million, probably a lot more. 1.6% are Christians, 1.5% Hindus; there are also some Parsees and Buddhists. The constitution guarantees freedom of religion, but Islam is the state religion. In the parliamentary elections, religious votes are taken separately. In 1970 the Church of Pakistan was founded as an association of the Anglican, Methodist, Lutheran and Scottish Churches. The Roman Catholic Church is divided into 1 archdiocese (Karachi) and 5 suffragan dioceses.

Popular education: 26.2% of the population, 10 years and older, were determined as alphabets in 1981: 35.1% of men and 16.0% of women; in the country the alphabet rate is 17.3%, less than half as high as in the city (47.1%). While the male literacy rate in Islamabad was 71.3%, it was extremely low at 0.8% for women in the FATA tribal areas. The proportion of functional alphabets is likely to be even lower; Pakistan is thus one of the bottom lights in an international comparison. There is no general compulsory school attendance, and in view of overcrowded schools it would hardly be feasible. According to the World Bank, 80% of boys and 49% of girls of primary school age were registered as pupils in 1993; the school; of the boys and girls who started school in 1988, 55% respectively. 45% fourth grade four years later.

schools: In 1992 the new education policy was announced with the aim of full literacy by 2002; private institutions should play an important role in this. In 1972 almost all private educational institutions had been nationalized; In view of the inadequate state education system, private schools have grown wild since the late 1970s, often for commercial reasons. The standard of training varies greatly from school to school, and the proportion of early leavers (drop outs) is high; all statistics only show the number of enrolled students (enrollment); the actual visit is likely to be much lower. The number of schools, pupils and teachers has increased dramatically in the last decade: in 1995-96 (1982-83 for comparison) 115,744 (71,358) primary schools (grades 1-5) with (1994-95) 11.5 million (6th , 2 million) pupils, 10,586 (5,432) middle schools (grades 6-10) with 3.5 million (1.5 million) pupils and 9,657 (3,715) high schools (grades 11-12) with 1 .3 million (0.6 million) students counted. (1995-96) 337,400 (168,100), 93,600 (55,100) and 188,100 (70,400) teachers taught at them. The proportion of female pupils only increased in secondary schools: it is now 40% (33%) of elementary, 31% (26%) of middle and 29% (24%) of high school. The vocational school system is still in its infancy, with 94,000 students in the 687 Secondary Vocational Institutions in 1994-95.

Universities: The higher education starts after 12 years of school and leads the (1994-95) 882,000 students of the 864 colleges to the BA in at least 2 years, and the 71,441 students of the 24 universities, including 3 technical, 3 agricultural, 1 medical and 1 remote University, in at least 2 more years to MA, M.Sc., MBBS, M.Phil. or a PhD. 26,857 professors teach at colleges and 6,979 at universities; the number of students is in some cases declining.

State expenditures for education in 1995-96 amounted to 54 billion pR - 2.5% of the gross national product. The most traditional and largest scientific institutions are the two universities of Lahore (founded in 1882 and 1951), the two universities of Karachi (founded in 1947 and 1951), the two universities in Hyderabad (founded in 1947 and 1963) as well the Agricultural University of Faisalabad (founded as a college in 1909).

Adult education: Due to the high proportion of illiterate people, the successes in adult education have so far been modest.


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