What are viable cells

Definition A cell is the smallest viable unit of the organism that can multiply itself through cell division. The cell is thus the smallest building block in the body. The number of cells in the human organism is estimated at around 10 trillion. The size of the cells varies between a few thousandths and 0.2 millimeters.

Every cell consists of a nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. The cell nucleus is the carrier of genetic information, i.e. the genetic material. The core body contains the blueprint of the ribosomes, which produce proteins from amino acids. The cytoplasm consists largely of water and contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates and salts. The membrane protects the cell from the outside, but also enables the cell's metabolism. Structures that take on a certain function in the cell are called organelles, which means small organs. This includes

  • the mitochondria, which provide energy for the cell by burning organic matter; for this they need oxygen;
  • the endoplasmic reticulum, which transports chemical substances and proteins,
  • the Golgi apparatus, which changes and sorts the various proteins and transports them to where they are needed; proteins are also broken down in the Golgi apparatus;
  • the central bodies that separate the chromosomes during cell division.

An association of many cells of the same type with the same function is called tissue. A distinction is made between connective, cartilage, bone, epithelial, muscle and nerve tissue. Different tissues in turn form organs.

All cells have a fixed lifespan. Some blood and intestinal cells only live a few days, red blood cells around 120 days; But there are also nerve cells that live as long as humans themselves.