What is noise in image processing

Smoothing filter, noise and distortion

Digital image processing pp 111-135 | Cite as

  • Martin Werner
First Online:


Binomial filters and Gaussian filters are typical averaging filters for blurring and suppressing image noise. With additive white Gaussian image noise (AWGN), the pixels are disturbed independently, so that averaging filters often achieve good results. In contrast to the additive image noise, distortions disturb the image signal directly and systematically. In important applications, the distortion can be modeled as filtering by an LSI system, such as linear motion distortion. One speaks of linear distortion and gives the description of the impulse response of the distorting LSI system.


Additive white Gaussian noise (“motion blur”) image region (“region of interest”) linear image distortion (“blur”) binomial filter (“binomial filter”) empirical mean (“arithmetic mean”) Gaussian -Filter ("Gaussian filter") smoothing filter ("averaging filter") averaging length pseudo random number ("noise") noise generator ("noise generator") square filter ("box filter") ) SNR ("signal-to-noise ratio") Speckle noise ("speckle noise") Lowpass filter ("lowpass filter") Blurring ("bluring") Distortion operator ("point spread function")

Additional electronic material

The electronic version of this chapter contains additional material that is available to authorized users https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-22185-0_5

The original version of this chapter has been revised. The electronic supplementary material has been attached. An erratum is available at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-22185-0_15

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Supplementary material


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Fulda University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, Germany