What plants have you grown so far?
With breeding, humans intervene in natural reproduction. So he changes animals or plants in such a way that their offspring correspond to the wishes of humans. The words “breeding” or “breeding” come from the Middle Ages and originally meant “teacher” or “educator”. In the past people spoke of chaste behavior and meant decent behavior.
There are different goals in animal breeding: The animals should become larger and thus produce more meat, deliver more milk or eggs and grow faster, consume less feed and stay healthier. Horses should get faster, attack dogs stronger and so on. However, breeding often not only has the desired advantages, but also disadvantages. When you breed animals, they create special breeds.
Plant breeding also has different goals: Fruits should be bigger and more colorful. Usually they shouldn't get any soft or brown spots during transport. They should get sick less or withstand certain poisons that can be used to fight the weeds. The taste can also be changed through targeted breeding. When you grow plants, they create special varieties.
How do you breed animals?
The methods of breeding animals are different. It is easiest to choose two parent animals with good traits. In this way, a more suitable young animal can emerge during fertilization. However, this takes many attempts. The semen is then artificially removed from a good breeding bull or stallion and injected through the vagina of many cows or mares. That is the power of the vet, and the recipient has to pay quite a bit of money for it.
However, this method is only really successful if it is continued over and over again over generations. The changes in a single young animal are often not very great. So it takes a lot of hard work and patience, sometimes over centuries.
In exceptional cases it is even possible to cross animals from different species. The best-known example is provided by the horse and donkey: the mule, also known as a mule, emerged from a horse mare and a donkey stallion. The mule emerged from a horse stallion and a donkey mare. Both breeds are less shy than horses and very good-natured. However, mules and mules can no longer father young animals themselves.
How do you grow plants?
The simplest breeding is selection. As early as the Stone Age, people collected the largest grains of sweet grass and sown them again. This is how our present grain came about.
Plants are grown in a similar way to animals. It is then no longer left to the insects to carry the pollen from one flower to the other. A human does this with a brush or similar instrument. Then you have to shield the plant and prevent another bee from ruining the result.
This creates, for example, tulips with special colors or roses with extraordinary scents. Sometimes the seeds or small onions have the new properties in them, sometimes they don't. Tulip bulbs, for example, form little bulbs in the ground that lie next to their mother like children. If you dig them up and put them back in individually, it can happen that the new tulips are small and colorless.
When it comes to fruit, there is one more thing: a new apple can be tasty and crunchy. If you put your core in the ground, the apples on the new tree will stay that way. Only the tree itself becomes weak and sickly. It must therefore be grafted onto another trunk. This process is described in detail in the article fruit tree.
What are the disadvantages of breeding?
Many good properties have been lost in the fruits and vegetables grown today. This mainly affects the taste, a lot has become bland. However, there are also breeders who specialize in preserving the old varieties. You can clearly taste the difference. But the yields are smaller, so the goods are usually more expensive.
Today's high-yielding grains are also bred, otherwise they would not yield so much. Sometimes you can set aside part of the harvest and sow again the next year. However, this is not possible with many varieties. The farmer then has to buy new seeds every year. This is particularly problematic in poorer countries. Many farmers then no longer have their own seeds that they could continue to use.
Another problem lies in the possibility of having a variety patented. This allows a company to have its new plant protected by the state and then has the sole right to sell. That will be very expensive for the farmers. Then when they have used up their own seeds, they have to keep buying seeds. The original varieties are then lost forever.
There are also other search results for “Breeding” from Blinde Kuh and Ask Finn.
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