How was Barbados named

Barbados

location
flag
Short dates
CapitalBridgetown
Form of governmentParliamentary monarchy in the Commonwealth
currency1 Barbados dollar (B .- $)
surface431 km²
population278.000
languagesEnglish
ReligionsProtestants 67% (Anglicans 40%), Catholics 54%
Connector system115V / 50Hz (North American plug)
Phone code+1-246
Internet TLD.bb
Time zoneCET-5h; CEST-6h

Barbados is located on the eastern edge of the Caribbean.

Regions [edit]

North coast

The north coast of Barbados consists of the administrative districts of St. Lucia and St. Peter. Both of them have a number of interesting places and attractions to visit. St. Lucy is the northernmost parish with a rugged coastline and rugged cliffs. The view from there is wonderful. One of the main tourist attractions in the north is the Animal Flower Cave. The erosion of the rocks created a beautiful cave. The whole north coast has no beaches.

The Mount Gay rum distillery is located in St. Lucy. On the northwest coast there is a lighthouse at Harrison Point. Finally, there are a number of old Anglican churches, St. Lucy's Parish Church, St. Clements Church and St. Swithin's Church in Greenidge.

East coast [edit]

The east coast consists of the administrative districts of St. Andrew, St. Joseph, St. John, and St. Philip. It offers some breathtaking rock formations in the country and natural rock pools for swimming, the only things that stand between Africa and us. The east coast beaches offer not only the biggest waves, but also the most dangerous underwater currents, Swim at your own risk! Known worldwide for its fabulous surfing grounds, Bathsheba is home to the famous "Soup Bowl" for the ultimate surfing vacation. The soup bowl is a hot spot for local and foreign surfers. With great conditions all year round.

Another popular east coast town, Cattlewash is home to many vacation homes owned by locals and foreigners alike.

Between 1881 and 1938 a railroad ran between Bridgetown and Belleplaine. In Bridgetown, the station was at what is now Fairchild Street Market. From Bath on the east coast via Bathsheba to Belleplaine, the route ran roughly parallel to today's coastal road. There you can still find remnants of the old railway, parts of the rails and stations in various places. The train service was discontinued because the mode of transport was too slow and could not be operated at a cost-covering level.

East coast beaches

  • ,. The curved, brown-sand beach is one of the safest bathing places on this stretch of coast, as it is protected by a long reef. This makes it well suited for divers. There are shady casuarina trees, a children's playground and picnic tables. Lots of locals come on weekends. Last change: no information
  • ,. There is a parking lot here and plenty of shade trees. It is the safest beach on this coast. Last change: not specified
  • ,. Narrow sandy beach with rocks near a friendly fishing village with a few palm trees and no other infrastructure. Last change: no information
  • ,. This white sand beach is 4 km long but is very hidden beneath the cliffs of Morgan Lewis Mill. Swimmers are warned of a very strong submarine current!.Last change: not specified
  • ,. Is located very far to the north and consists only of rocks. The bay, in which a small river flows into the sea, is surrounded by chalk and limestone cliffs. A lot of locals come here for picnics, especially on weekends and on public holidays. Last change: no information
  • ,. The most beautiful beach on the east coast, rocks have been worn off by the sea and stand like a mushroom in the sea. Here you can surf very well and watch flying fish. Last change: no information

South coast [edit]

The south coast consists of the counties of Christ Church and St. Philip. The land is flat and is dominated by the St. George Valley. In the past centuries, sugar cane was mainly grown there. Today there is a clear dichotomy. The west is densely built up and is dominated by tourism. There are long curved bays with fine sandy beaches. The east side is dominated by the international airport. The coast is rocky, steep coast with a few, small sandy bays. The south coast is a strange mix of the Caribbean and the Atlantic, with strong winds and waves to the east that are becoming increasingly popular with surfers.

Beaches on the south coast

  • ,. A heavily frequented sandy beach with parking and beach supervision. Sun loungers and parasols can be rented, and water sports are possible. Hotel beach with restaurants and boutiques. Last change: no information
  • ,. Accessible from Bottom Bay Road. Small, beautiful, semicircular bay with fine, white sand but without infrastructure. Last change: no information
  • . Long, wide sandy beach with parking on Maxwell Coast Road. Hotel beach with restaurants. Last change: no information
  • ,. Accessible from Bottom Bay Road. Small, beautiful, semicircular bay without infrastructure. Last change: no information
  • . This wide, white sandy beach has a particularly beautiful panorama, it is bordered in the east by a high cliff. The hotel beach is chargeable for non-guests of the hotel. Last change: no information
  • ,. Wide, fine sandy beach with parking. The beach is frequented by divers, swimmers, surfers and sailors. There are all kinds of water sports and beach activities, hotels, restaurants and stalls. Mount Charlie Reef is off the coast. Sponges and black corals can be found in water depths of 25 to 60 m. Last change: no information
  • ,. Only accessible on back roads. The sand dunes turn into cliffs here. The beach is wide and sandy, but without any infrastructure, you have to bring cool drinks and food with you. Last change: no information
  • . The fine sandy beach is 2½ km long. There are many sand dunes made of blown, very salty sea sand. Last change: no details
  • . Since the old Holiday Inn hotel was demolished, this fine sandy beach has mostly been little visited. It can be reached through the entrance of the new Hilton Hotel via a narrow path next to the tennis courts to the Needham's Point lighthouse. Last change: no information
  • . Also known as Enterprise Beach, like the beaches off Dover and Worthing, it has lost its appeal, although this beach is still the best of them all. Casuarina trees provide shade, but there is hardly anything left of the once wide sandy beaches. The damaged reefs and erosion have resulted in tons of sand being washed away. Offshore are two popular diving spots, Muff Dive and Castle Bank Reef. Both start at about 18 m water depth. When the sea is calm, you can find many fish and sea turtles here. Last change: no information
  • ,. Accessible from Bottom Bay Road. Small, beautiful, semicircular bay without infrastructure. Last change: no information
  • . This beach is particularly popular with locals on weekends. Last change: not specified
  • ,. Also bears the name Carib Beach, Worthing, wide, fine sandy beach with a hotel and restaurant, water sports, moderately visited and not overcrowded. When the tide is low, you can hike along the beach to St. Lawrence. Hotel beach with restaurants. Last change: no information
  • ,. Because of the good wind conditions, this beach is a surfer's paradise. Last change: no information

West coast [edit]

The west coast of Barbados is often referred to as the "Platinum Coast" or "Gold Coast". It is known for its clear, warm waters, with gently golden sand. This coast is ideal for a Caribbean vacation, but also correspondingly expensive.

This corner of paradise generally offers a kind of anonymity for celebrities that you won't find elsewhere. Barbados has therefore become a popular escape for some very famous names. Many of the most exclusive hotels on the island are located here. There are also many bars and restaurants along the beach.

Although many of the west coast beaches are not directly on the road, but hidden behind properties and hotels, don't be discouraged, they are public. Just find your way to enjoy the sand and the day! There are several beautiful beaches along the coast. Everyone has to decide for themselves which is the best.

Danger! On the west coast and in the Scotland District (north) Manchinel trees (pronounced :omanchinihl) are widespread; on the beaches they are sometimes identified by a red colored ring on the trunk. The apple-like fruits and the resin of the trees contain a slightly corrosive toxin; you should also never rub the leaves between your fingers. They secrete an irritant, especially when it rains, which can lead to skin burns. After the initial reddening of the skin, blisters can even form (similar to burns). Also, do not stand under a manchinel tree when it rains and do not eat the fruit!

West coast beaches

  • ,. last change: not specified
  • . Beautiful, fine, white beach. Malibu Beach Club. Last change: no information
  • ,. This beach is popular with locals. Last change: not specified
  • ,. Many yachts anchor in the bay. On the beach there are many options for entertainment, sports and restaurants. Last change: no information
  • ,. Nice beach with water sports. Last change: no information
  • ,. The southernmost stretch of beach on the west coast between the Hilton Hotel and Grand Barbados Beach Resort. Last change: no information
  • ,. Over 2 km long, fine sand. Last change: not specified
  • ,. This beach is 1½ km long and between 60 and 90 m wide. In the south it is bordered by a former US naval base, which is now used by the Barbadian army as a training camp. In the north there are very few remains of Maycock's Fort. It was built in 1838 as one of the main defenses on the island. Last change: no information
  • ,. The wreck of the Pamir, sunk in 1985, lies off the coast and is now a popular diving destination. The sandy beach is almost sugar-like white, there is a lively beach bar. Last change: no information
  • . This fine, white beach has great appeal for divers. The wreck of the Stavronikita lies at a greater depth off the coast. There is a parking lot and a restaurant. Last change: not specified
  • . White sand beach, shady trees. Hotels, restaurants, stalls and many hawkers. The beach is good for sunbathing and swimming. There are all kinds of sporting activities including horse riding. Last change: not specified
  • ,. The beach of the 300-room Almond Beach Village hotel. There used to be a whaling station there, today the whole bay is being converted into the Marina Port St. Charles. Last change: no details

Cities [edit]

Nelson Monument in Bridgetown

Background [edit]

The aboriginal people of Barbados were Indians, Barrancoidswho came here from South America via Venezuela and Trinidad around 1600 BC. They were hunters and gatherers. They lived on the southern tip at Chancery Lane and on the northeast coast at Boscobelle. Around 350 AD, peaceful Arawaks followed with their canoes from what is now Venezuela. Presumably around 1250 they were driven out by the warlike Caribs. In 1537 the Portuguese navigator sailed Pedro a Campos on the way to Brazil and gave the island its name Los Barbados - the bearded - after the many fig trees whose aerial roots are reminiscent of beards, he found only a few Indians.

Barbados is about 33 km long and up to 23 km wide. It is the most eastern Caribbean island, around 160 km from Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent. It is made of corallogenic limestone, mostly flat with an average height of 50 m above sea level. In the central eastern part, in the districts of St. Andrew and St. Joseph, there are several peaks between 160 and 300 meters high. Here is also the highest point in the country, the 340 m high Mount Hillaby. Close to the coast and parallel to it runs an almost 300 m high cliff, the Hackleton's Kliff.

As the English merchant John Powell Landed on the island in May 1625 with his ship “Olive”, it was uninhabited except for a few wild pigs and was overgrown by dense forests. On his return to England Powell reported to his client, the merchant Sir William Courteen. He equipped a new expedition and on February 17, 1627, 80 English settlers led by Powell and 10 slaves went ashore at what is now Holetown. They were the first permanent European residents. John Powell became the first governor of Barbados.

The Earl of Carlisle, a Scot in constant financial difficulties, followed King James to England. He used his influence at the royal family and received the rights to the Leeward Islands to colonize them. He paid off his debts in England by leasing 4,000 hectares of land in Barbados to traders in London. In 1628 the British settlers under the Earl of Carlisle († 1636) founded what is now Bridgetown. At the point where the Chamberlain Bridge is today, there is said to have been a wooden bridge over the Constitution River at that time, which came from the Native American Indians.

In 1635, 1408 people lived in Barbados.

The islanders grew tobacco and cotton. In 1637 the first sugar cane seedlings came through the Dutch Pieter Blower from Brazil to the island. The first sugar was produced five years later. Sugar production required a lot of labor and the profits from it were enormous.

In 1644 37,000 Europeans and 5,680 "Negro slaves" lived in Barbados.

Between 1708 and 1766 around 150,000 slaves were transported from Africa to Barbados. Only some of them survived the crossing. Soon there were more colored people than whites on the island, and they had to act more and more cruelly against their workers in order to maintain control. So it is not surprising that the first slave revolt took place as early as 1675.

The number of slaves rose to 45,000 by 1684. Another 15,000 field workers were impoverished Scots, Irish and Valais, convicts and serfs. Between 1708 and 1766, 148,820 slaves came to Barbados. Their poor living conditions, six working days of 12 hours a week, repeatedly led to conspiracies and rebellion: 1675, 1683, 1696, 1702. In contrast to Jamaica, Grenada or Dominica, there are no high mountains in Barbados where runaway slaves can find themselves could hide. They only had two options, the caves in the districts of St. George and St. Thomas or the escape over the sea to the island of Saint Vincent 153 km away.

But it wasn't just runaway slaves who ran away, many white people also left the island. Including some of the larger planters who had no luck with growing sugar cane or who had lost their property in the devastating cyclone of 1675 and who were looking for a new start in Suriname. The majority, however, were landless contract workers and small farmers who moved to Jamaica, where there was enough fertile farmland. About 30,000 whites left the island between 1650 and 1680.

In 1684, 19,861 whites and 46,602 slaves lived in Barbados.

The wealthy planter Christopher Codrington II (1668 - 1710) bequeathed his possession of 320 hectares of land and 300 slaves to a sub-organization of the Anglican Church. It was his will to train the slaves further. Only his son Christopher Codrington III was able to implement his father's will in the form of the Codrington Collage.

In 1765 missionaries from Herrenhut (Moravians) came to Barbados. They were the first to take care of the education and salvation of the slaves; Accordingly, they were unpopular with the plantation owners. In 1788 the first Methodist church was founded in Barbados. Their activities were initially limited to Bridgetown and had no impact on the rural population.

Due to the many small wars between France and England, which also influenced trade in the Caribbean, the number of slave populations fell from around 68,000 to 57,400 between 1773 and 1783.

As early as 1652 it was decided to set up a regiment of cavalry for the security of the island and every landowner of over 20 hectares had to provide a man and a horse for it. In 1655 the English fleet with 60 ships and 4,000 soldiers under the command of Penn and Venables called the island on the way to Hispaniola. In the decades that followed, British warships and soldiers kept coming to the island. Around 1732 there were 22 fortress towers and forts and 26 cannons with a total of 463 cannons and over 4,000 foot troops and cavalry on Barbados. In 1780 there were 50 fortifications with 450 cannons on the 48 km long coastal strip of the south and west coast. In the same year it was decided to set up a permanent garrison.Admiral George Rodney came here with his fleet before the naval battle of Martinique, 588 soldiers and 583 slaves were recruited by him in Barbados. Left in January 1781 Admiral Rodney Barbados and sailed on to Saint Lucia.

In 1782 there was sea fighting between the British fleet, led by Admiral Samuel Hood, and the French. From Barbados he attacked the de Grasse fleet with a fleet of 22 ships and damaged many French ships. Landed on June 4, 1805 Lord Nelson with its flagship "Victory" and several escort ships in the port of Bridgetown. In the same year Nelson fell at the Battle of Trafalgar.

The end of the slave trade in 1807 and the abolition of slavery between 1834 and 1838 initially brought little relief to the plantation workers. In 1812, a law on the registration of slaves was passed in Trinidad. After it had been discussed very controversially in the other Caribbean colonies, it was submitted to Parliament in London in June 1815. Working hours for slave women were reduced, whites who murdered their slaves could be punished, and blacks were allowed to own land. The slaves wanted more rights sooner and in April 1816 there was a great slave revolt in Barbados in the course of which several plantations were set on fire. After their leader, the uprising was "Bussa's rebellion" called. A fifth of the total sugar cane fields were destroyed. 176 slaves were killed during the clashes, and another 214 were executed after the subsequent trials.

During the 17th century, the free colored people were a tiny minority in Barbados, which increased somewhat in the second half of the 18th century. But it wasn't until the beginning of the 19th century that they became a significant part of the population. In 1802 there were 2,168 released slaves, in 1829 there were 5,146 and in 1834 the number of released slaves reached the 7,000 mark. In compensation for 83,000 freed slaves, the white landowners in Barbados received £ 1.75 million from the British government in London. Samuel Jackman Prescod was not elected to the House of Representatives until 1843 as the first non-white person. In 1884 non-whites were also given the right to vote.

In 1851 135,939 people lived on the island; 15,824 were white, 30,059 were multiracial and 90,056 were colored.

Cholera broke out in 1854. In the year 22,736 deaths were registered across the island, 20,000 more than in the previous year. A large number of colored people left the island in the following years. Too many freed slaves were left without work and bread, and wages remained low. Most of them emigrated to Guyana, Saint Croix and Antigua.

In 1871 there were 161,594 people on the island; 16,560 were white, 39,578 multiracial and 105,904 were colored.

Between 1904 and 1914 there was a new wave of emigrants, around 60,000 islanders mostly went to Panama, in 1909 alone there were 20,000. From there the workers sent substantial amounts of money to their families, and some of them achieved real wealth as a result. Even today, emigrants are of considerable economic importance. For example, in 1992 the Barbadians living in the USA transferred an amount of 29 million US dollars to their families and relatives on the Caribbean island.

In 1921 there were 156,312 people on the island.

From February 1902 to April 1903 a smallpox epidemic broke out on the island, killing 118 people. In 1908 there was a yellow fever epidemic, in 1927 malaria. The world economic crisis in 1929 brought serious economic setbacks again. Charles Duncan O'Neale († 1934) founded the first political party, the Democratic Leage, in 1924.

In 1937 189,350 people lived on the island.

In 1938 the average daily wage was 30 cents. Wages were similarly low on many other Caribbean islands. Because of this, there were riots all over the islands and unions were founded. In the same year another party came into being, Grantley Adams became the leader of the Barbados Progressive Leage. In 1939 the island administration passed a union law and two years later the Barbados Workers Union was formed. Social and economic tensions in the Caribbean colonies as a result of World War II and the Great Depression led to the establishment of a royal commission. It was named after its director, Lord Moyne. On the recommendation of this commission, a central development and social authority was set up in Barbados, which carried out all investments in the Caribbean colonies.

During the war years, Grantley H. Adams became the leader of the popular democratic movement. Its steady rise began with the founding of the Barbados Progressive League in 1938 from which the Barbados Workers Party evolved. It was achieved that the circle of adults entitled to vote was expanded. Proof of an income of £ 20 was sufficient for eligibility to vote. In 1963 the first faculty of the University of the West Indies opened.

The largest and thus economically strongest British colonies, Jamaica and Trinidad, demanded more and more self-government from the British motherland, the smaller and weaker ones followed these demands. Barbados gained independence on November 30, 1966. For the next two terms the Democratic Labor Party was under its leader Errol Barrow in power. Then, according to English custom, it was time for a change of government. 1976 became Tom Adams, son of Sir Grantley Adams, head of government until his sudden cardiac death in March 1985. Bernard St. John succeeded him. He could not make up for the great loss of leadership that Adams had left until the 1986 elections. In addition, there were now 20% unemployed and allegations of nepotism and mismanagement. So Errol Barrow came back to government. However, he died on June 1, 1987. Vice premier Erskine Sandiford became his successor. It was not until 1994 that the Barbados Workers Party was able to win elections again.

The island is considered the most English of all the Caribbean islands. Because of the healthy climate, tourism has developed strongly since 1932. The east coast is partly strongly fissured because of the Atlantic surf and has bizarre rock formations. The protected west and south-west coast facing the Caribbean Sea has beautiful sandy beaches, here you will also find the large hotel complexes. The entire south-western coastal region from Bridgetown via Hastings and Rockley to St. Lawrence has grown together to form a large urban settlement in which over 50% of the total population live.

  • Culpepper Island is the only islet that belongs to Barbados. It is located in the south of the east coast, is about 25 x 35 meters and protrudes six meters out of the sea.

Bajans [edit]

This is what the “real” Barbadians call themselves, those born in Barbados. Many of their ancestors, who settled on the island 350 years ago, were sons from wealthy families. But it was the second-born, who had no title and no great inheritance to expect in England, so they went to this island to become wealthy here as planters; it became the “better offs” (those up there). The “poor” whites were Scots, Irish and Valais who were exiled (barbadosed) as losers in the English civil war. But there were also gamblers, whores and convicts from the overflowing English prisons. The influential settlers of the first hour, around 20 families, still determine politics, business and economic life today; they are popularly known as the “high whites”. Bayanized blacks are the descendants of the slaves from Ghana and Nigeria. Many of them served for England in World War I and II. The "new Bajans" came to the island as emigrants in the 1980s: Indians, Pakistani, Lebanese, Chinese, Americans and also Germans

Government

  • The Queen of England is represented by the Governor-General. Clifford S. Husband (born August 5, 1926) has held this post since 1996.
  • The parliament consists of two chambers, the upper house (Senate = 21 senators) and the lower house (House of Assembly = 30 members). A term of office is five years.
  • The Royal Barbados Police Force has 882 officers. In 1978 an army unit was set up, 1,000 men are under arms. Barbados is the headquarters of the Regional Security System (RSS).

Unions [edit]

  • Barbados Workers Union (BWU) from 1941
  • National Union of Public Workers (NUPW)
  • there are two teachers' unions (BUT) and (BSTU)

Parties [edit]

  • Barbados Labor Party (BLP), founded in 1938 by Grantley H. Adams and C. A. Braithwaite
  • Democratic Labor Party (DLP), leader: Erroll Barrow, which split from the BLP in 1955
  • National Democratic Party (NDP), founded in 1989
  • Progressive Conservative Party (PCP), founded in 1956

National personalities / national heroes [edit]