Are the Phoenicians underestimated?

Phoenicians lived. Who are the Phoenicians: origin, history, culture

Residents of the country, Phoenicians, created a strong civilization with developed handicrafts, maritime and rich culture.

Phoenician writing has become one of the first recorded syllable letters in the history of systems.

The highest flowering of the Phoenician civilization falls at 1200-800. Bc.

In the vi century BC Chr. E. Picnika captured the Persians and in 332 BC. BC - Alexander the Great.

In a later period in the translation of the Septuagints the name "Hanaani" was regularly used as "Phoenicianer" (Mi Mk.7: 26; MF.15: 22; Apostles 1: 19; 15: 3; 21: 2).


In the XIII century. Bc. Phenicia saw the invasion of the peoples of the sea.

On the one hand, a number of cities were destroyed and decayed, but the peoples of the sea weakened Egypt, resulting in the independence and rising of the Phenicia, where the leader played an important role.

The Phoenicians began to build large (30 m long) kille ships with a rag and a direct sail. However, the development of shipbuilding led to the destruction of Lebanon's cedar houses. Then the Phoenicians invented their writing.

Already in the XII century. Bc. Cadiz Colony (Spain) and Utica (Tunisia) were established. The colonization was then subjected to Sardinia and Malta. The Phoenicians founded the city of Palermo in Sicily.

In the viii century Bc. Phenicia was captured by Assyria.

Phenicia was in 538 BC. Under the rule of the Persians.

As a result, the Phoenician colonies of the western Mediterranean gained independence and united under the onset of Carthage.

According to Herodotus, Phenicia extended from Pquhy to Palestine.

In Seleucdah it was viewed from the Orphosus (mouth of Nar-Berid) to the mouth of a Nar mirror. From later geographers alone (for example Strabo) they consider the entire bank of the Peluia, the other southern border in Caesarea and Karmila.

Only the Roman Later Provincial Division spread the chief's name to the inland inland regions adjacent to the Damascus strip, and later it was distinguished from the coast by the sea from the Lebanese.

With Justinian, even Palmyra was included in the latter. Speak in Mk 7:26 "Sirophinianien"To distinguish them from African Phoenicians, with whom the Romans called "Punami".

Relations with other peoples in the region

The Greeks received the knowledge of the production of glass from the Phoenicians and adopted the alphabet.

The prophets' predictions about the coming judgment over the hoop (amount. 23; Iz. 26-28) came true when after the period of Persian rule Alexander Macedonsky won and destroyed this city. However, the shooting range was soon restored.

A severe blow to the Phoenician trade was the fall and the ultimate destruction of Carthage. In the Roman era, Visicia entered the province of Syria.

Phenicia's relationship with Israel was episodic. At the time of the Tyrsky King, Hiram was providing economic assistance to Israel, supplying Phoenician masters for building a fleet and Seawozers for its operation.

Ahab's marriage to Jezeabefel, the daughter of Sidonsky King Efvala, had important political implications, but had a detrimental impact on the Israeli religion.

In deeds, Phoennia is mentioned as the land through which the road from Jerusalem to Antiochioch (Acts 11:19; 15: 3) is.

For Elijah (3 Tsar. 17: 9), as for Jesus (MF. 15:21), this area outside Israel was a place where they would come from time to time to seek privacy after reflection and prayers.

Sea expeditions

In 1500 BC They managed to reach the Atlantic from the Mediterranean and reach the Canary Islands.

Around 600 BC Chr. Recovered African continent. The journey from the Red Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar took three years. During this voyage they used the oars that were on three decks and a four-edged sail of about 300 square meters. m.

In 470 g. Bc. Found a colony in West Africa.

The Phoenicians are one of the most influential and least understandable ancient civilizations. Between 1550 - 300 years BC They dominated the Mediterranean area. They invented the alphabet people used to date and founded the first cities in Western Europe. At the same time, however, they never had a single state, but only independent city-states connected to the overall culture. Initially coming out of modern Lebanon and Syria, the Finizien founded a colony throughout the Mediterranean. They founded Carthage, which threatened the very existence of the Roman Empire.

1. Phoenician blood

Phoenician civilization long ago disappeared and was forgotten, but the genetic legacy of these ancient sailors lives on today. National Geographic's Chris Tyler Smith checked the DNA of 1,330 men in the former sites of the Phoenician settlements (Syria, Palestine, Tunisia, Cyprus and Morocco). Analysis of their Y chromosome revealed that at least 6 percent of the genome of the modern male population of these places - Phoenician.

2. Inventor of the alphabet

The Phoenicians developed the basis for the modern alphabet in the 16th century in our epoch. With 3000 BC BC, Egyptiers and Sumerians invented complex symbolic letters. Phoenic merchants were inspired by these early attempts to indicate language through symbols and come up with a letter version that would be easier to master and use. These traders discovered that words are made up of a small number of repetitive sounds, and these sounds can only be represented by 22 characters that are in various combinations.

Although the Phoenician contains vowel sounds, they removed them in their system. Today, such a lack of vowels can still be found in Hebrew and Aramaic, both of which were under the strong influence of the Phoenician alphabet. From VIII century BC BC Greeks adopted the Phoenician system and added vowels. The Romans also used the Phoenician alphabet and evolved it to a practically modern version of the Latin alphabet.

3. Child victims

Much of the fact that is known today about the Phoenicians was actually drawn from historical records of their enemies. One of the most enduring facts used in the antifini propaganda was that they practiced child sacrifice. Josephine Quinn of Oxford claims that these dark myths really hide the truth. In order to reject divine grace, the Phoenicians sacrificed the babies, they were cremated and buried in special cemeteries with gifts from the gods and appropriate ritual inscriptions.

The children's sacrifices were actually not frequent and only used by the elite of society because of the high price restrictions. Archaeologists discovered the graves of child sacrifice in modern day Tunisia and other Phoenician colonies in Sardinia and Sicily. They are buried urns with tiny bodies carefully cremated.

4. Phoenician purple.

Purple is a dye that was broken down by mollusks from Iglean. He first appeared in the Phoenician city of TIR. Difficulty in making a dye, rich hue and thread strength made it welcome and expensive goods. The Phoenicians, thanks to purple, earned fame worldwide and acquired a huge fortune, since this dye was valued more than gold of identical weight. It became popular in Carthage, where it spread to Rome again.

The Romans adopted a law forbidding everyone except the elite of the empire to wear purple colored clothing. As a result, purplewear came on as a mark of power. Even for Senators, getting permission to wear a purple stripe on their own tog was a huge hit. The purple trade ended in 1204 after the sack of Constantinople.

5. Navigas

According to legend, the Phoenicians reached Britain, flooded around the southern tip of Africa, and came to the New World thousands of years before Columbus. British adventure seeker Philip Bill, 52, decided to see if such long-term swimming was possible on the ancient Phoenician dishes. The researcher is hiring archaeologists and shipbuilders to design and build the Phoenician 20-meter-50-tonne vessel based on the found an old sunken ship in the western part of the Mediterranean.

Philip Bill went on a trip from the island of Arvad off the coast of Syria. He went through the Suez Canal in the Red Sea, flew along the eastern coast of Africa, and came down the Cape of Good Hope. Then he went along the west coast of Africa on the ship, entered the Gibraltar Strait and returned to Syria. The six month expedition cost more than £ 250,000 sterling, in which it passed 32,000 kilometers, proving that the Phoenicians in Africa can play in Bartolomeus Dysol in 2000, which it did in 1488.

6. Rare European DNA

In 2016, the analysis of 2500-year-old remains of the Phoenician found in Carthago led to the detection of rare European genes. Named as "Boys from the Bursa", a man belonged to the Hapogroup U5B2C1. This genetic marker is inherent in the people of the north of the Mediterranean coast, probably the Pyrenees Peninsula. U5B2C1 is one of the oldest famous European hapfroups. Today this rare genetic marker is found in only 1 percent of Europeans.

7. Lebanese treasures

In 2014, from excavations in Souton Sudon Southernrolivan City, archaeologists made one of the most important discoveries regarding Phoenician artifacts for the past half century. They excavated the 1.2 meter statue of the priest, dated from the VI century BC. It was decorated with a bronze symbol depicting the Phoenician goddess Tanitis, whose shape was surprisingly similar to the Egyptian ankh.

Alongside the artifact, archaeologists found unknown earlier underground chambers built in the third millennium BC and 20 tombs dated to the second millennium BC. Together with artifacts, hidden cameras and graves, the researchers discovered 200 kilograms of charred wheat and 160 kilograms of beans.

8. Iberian colonization

As legend has it, the Phoenicians founded the Spanish city of Cadiz in 1100 in our era. Until 2007 it was just a myth, but archaeologists suddenly discovered the remains of the walls and traces of the temple, which dates back to the VIII century BC. They also unearthed the Phoenician ceramics, vessels, bowls and plates. During the excavations near the comedy's Cadus schedule, archaeologists discovered two skeletons that opened the veil of secrets about the complex history of the Phoenician colonization of the Pyrenean Peninsula.

Spanish genetics analyzed DNA and found that a person was a "pure" Phoenician and died around 720 BC. Chr. Died. Another skeleton buried in the early 6th century BC had DNA, which is common in Western Europe. It suggests that his mother was from the Iberian Peninsula.

9. Phoenician followers

In September 2015, the Canada government returned the old Phoenician follower to Lebanon. We are no longer talking about a tiny glass pendant size nail that the Canadian border patrol confiscated in Smuggling on November 27, 2006. Glass beads shows the head of a bearded man. The specialist of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts verified its authenticity and dated the follower of the VI century to our era. The expert also confirmed that the pendant was made in modern Lebanon.

10. Azorean Outpost

The Azores are located one and a half kilometers from the coast of Western Europe. When the Portuguese arrived here in the 19th century, the islands were considered intact humanity. Even so, archaeological evidence believes that some scientists believe that the Phoenicians reached the archipelago thousands of years ago.

In 2010, researchers from the Portuguese Association of Archaeological Studies in Nuno Ribeiro reported the basis of the mysterious stone carving on the island of Tersesira that concerns itself - the Azores were appropriately thousands of years earlier than previously thought. They found several structures from the IV century BC. Found from the remains of the Carthaginian temples built in honor of the Phoenician goddess Tanit.

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Previously, the country was inhabited by many people who lived in ancient states that no longer exist. But who are the Phoenicians? Where did she live and what did she do?


The Phoenicians are the ancient people who are inhabited by Fianch. This state was located east of the Mediterranean coast on the territory of modern Lebanon on the Levancet coast of the Mediterranean.

The Phoenician civilization is very culturally developed and magnificent in its time. It reached its maximum peak of the heyday in 1200-800 BC. Chr. E.


According to the written works of the ancient Greek historian Herodota, the Phoenicians came from the north-western part of Arabia. Namely from the coastal area of ​​the Red Sea. At first they spoke in the Semitic language, so they were called Semites and assigned to this group. After a while the Greeks began to call them from the Phoenicians. It is believed that this word happened from the ancient Greek "Fiunijes", which means a purple color, because in the coastal part of the state there was a special mollusk that gives a red dye when people later active and used things and products color in the appropriate purple colors.

History of existence

When we realized who would take better account of the Phoenicians if one took better account of the chronology of the events of this ancient state.

Interestingly, the fact that the chief appeared for so long that historians still have some questions about the life and history of people.

Initially, the seven appeared on the Levancet coast of the Mediterranean around V Millennium as part and continuation of the Canaan civilization and culture. In the early days of civilization, it was called Canaan. But around 1500 BC Chr. E. In Phenicia its separate culture originates.

The state developed gradually. Subsequently, people built as Phoenicians as one of the ancient cities of the world Bible (or as other people who built named, gorge or gabal). The city has grown and its economy and trade came up to a high level. It was from him that the name of the Bible appeared.

But closer to the second millennium, the phenic became even greater and held the whole east of the Mediterranean coast. The city of Sidon appeared, now famous, thanks to Homer's "Iliads", in which he admired the inhabitants of the place for making beautiful handicrafts.

The Phoenicians were excellent artisans and traders, but not warriors. During all their existence they acquired the siege from the Greeks, then from Assyria, who could win the sweets, and forced the people to breed tribute for two centuries. After that, the state fought for independence for a long time, until the end was the fifth province of Persia in 539 to n. e.

And in 332 BC Chr. E. Alexander Macedonian finally captured Eastern decorations. Even so, the western part of the state and the city of Carthage continued their existence for some time.

Phoenician language and writing

Initially, people only spoke in Phoenician (around the 15th century AD). When China reached its heyday, the alphabet appeared. Thus the letter began to appear. Such a Phoenician type of alphabet was much more convenient than the hieroglyph of ancient Egypt or Cloin in Mesopotamia. A phoneme is a letter. For the presence of language, the number of letters varied from 30 and 22, but there was no transmission of vowels.

It can be said that it was in an old dinner that the active use of alphabetical writing began. Due to active trade, good connections with neighboring countries and convenient geographical location, the language was distributed throughout the Mediterranean. Unfortunately, not a single literary monument of Phenicia did not survive to this day, because they were recorded on papyrus, which were very quickly destroyed in the conditions of this climate.

Two options for the alphabet emerged from the Phoenician script: Greek and Aramaic, as the flow rate system with letters has proven to be very convenient. And in the vii. In the 19th century, the Phoenicians moved into Arabic and Aramaic languages.

Trade and travel

Phenicia is a very great developed state of the past. As mentioned earlier, the main occupation of the Phoenicians was seafarers. Many trade routes went through the country. At about the same time as the invention, Khanano began writing large quilted ships for navigation. But their ships were very strong indeed for that time.

It is believed that Phoenicians were the first people to hit the entire continent of Africa. Herodotus also writes in his literary work that they are in the 7th century. Bc e. Tripes came with me. It is also known that the Phoenicians' voyages were on the shores of this England.

Phenicia was also known for its cedar forests, they provided the wood in Mesopotamia and Egypt. They used these conifers for shipbuilding. Unfortunately, on the territory of current Lebanon, such cutting led to the destruction of cedar forests.

The finances made olive oil and wine. They made a purple dye from mollusks, each of which brought only a drop of color. Therefore, all things and red products were very expensive. Successful glass and glass products that were famous throughout the Mediterranean. Dried fish was a particularly popular topic for trade to the Phoenicians.

But in the chief himself from other states, papyrus, gold, copper, animal skins, incense, wool, spices, cotton, flax, elephant bones and much more were brought to the chief of other states.

The largest city-states were considered to be Carthage, Sidon, Tir. They were mostly pulled out and the whole country developed.


To better understand who such Phoenicians are, you should also learn a small and spiritual life of their society. In the recipe, the reign of paganism, and the people themselves worshiped different gods. There have also been sacrifices that there are so many disputes in our day. Neighboring nations with the Phoenitors viewed this customs very cruelly.

The victim mostly brought infants under 5 months of age. It is not known exactly how often it was practiced. However, numerous blush URNs in the band are not an indicator of the mass of child victims. There is a suggestion that children, regardless of whether they died of some other cause or they were killed to the gods.

But who are the Phoenicians and is it possible, in spite of everything, when they look at the great people? One thing can be said unequivocally: thanks to Phenicians, we received a lot of inventions and a special contribution to world culture, so it is impossible to underestimate the strength and might of this ancient state.

All the basic facts about civilization

Land Land is a government education that emerged on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. The center of this power was on the territory of current Lebanon. In the north, the land of Finika ended in the mouth of the Onont River, and in the south - Mount Carmel. The opinions of historians of different times regarding the real territory of the coppers have been divided into times of rule of certain states of the borders of this region.

The people created by the civilization of the phenicists were called Phoenicians, they managed to have enough powerful civilization to develop various handicrafts, create the largest network of marine trade paths that existed in ancient times. They created the first alphabet when it didn't count with Sumerian indications with all the characters used and created one of the oldest types of phonetic letters. The flor of the Phoenician culture came to 12-8 centuries BC. Chr.

  • The territory of Fiancia, the geographical location where is located, is the main town where is located

However, the early history of the old state - Fenika began long before the arrival of civilization on strength and might. Like many other states, the Phoenician state was formed on the basis of Nome State cities that gradually rose from small settlements. However, despite the general cultural, commercial, and allied ties and other bondage connections, the cities of Phenicia could not unite in one powerful state. In the early period the key role here was played by the city of Sidon, later on the role of the conditional "capital", the city with the greatest influence in the region, a tir was appointed. There were also other large cities like Akko, Akhzisiv, Bible and others.

Modern scientists carry various facts about Phenicia, but often their theories contradict each other. For example, according to one version, the name of this country came from the Greek word "φοινως", which means "purple". This name may seem logical, since the Phoenicians invented the method of making purple lacquer, and processed certain shells. According to another version, the name happened from "φοϊνιξ", "Land of Phoenix", the divine of the sun, which comes from the east. Some suggest that this name is derived from the Egyptian "Fenkhu", "Shipbuilder". The Phoenicians really were the best ship builders of their era.

The history of the ancient state is the Chicap, as an independent political entity, began with the expansion of local states from states. In the second millennium BC. Trade routes between Phenicia and Egypt have already been laid here. For this country, the war of Egypt and the state of Hettov. In the 13th century BC All major local countries suffered from the invasion of the so-called "Nations of the Sea". Many local cities have been looted or abandoned, the countries that once had a major impact on the formation lost control of what contributed to the formation of an independent state here.

The rise here began at the same time as the decline of the "indigenous" powers of the Middle East at the end of the 13th century BC. During this time Israel was occupied by the Israelis and Aramy settled in Syria. The Phoenicians developed a model of powerful ships that can travel long distances. The first Phoenician colonies appeared in modern Spain and Tunisia as early as the 12th century. They were who founded the first settlements in Sardinia and Malta, in Sicily, they laid the city of Palermo. For the fourth century, however, the power of the Dini was not entrenched for any particular city, and such disagreement made its condition weak. In the 8th century BC Fianchi accepted Assyrians without much resistance - the locals did not want to fight for independence for a long time, and they agreed to pay tribute to the invaders if only they did not disturb them with the trade. In the 6th century BC Their lands were captured by the Persians. After that, the Phoenician colonies separated from their capital in the city of TIR and ran around the new center Carthage. At the same time trade connections were preserved, whereby the Phoenician cities without the destruction of Carthage by the Romans in the 2nd century BC. Were allowed to live life. Then the land of the phenicians went hand-by-hand and never functioned as an independent state.

The civilization of civilization was not born as other local states. They lived on the coast, so it's not surprising that they lived their society at the expense of fishing, not farming. They were engaged in agriculture but did not have the need to build large irrigation systems, which would require a rigid central system. Instead, they began shopping and fishing to build (often these functions became united) ships that allowed them to extract food and trade overseas. Their ships reached the western edges of the Mediterranean, and in the 7th century, of the order of the Egyptian Pharaoh, the Phoenician ships went three years in Africa. The Phoenicians were skilled craftsmen and their metal products, bones, fabrics and jewelry were highly valued throughout the Mediterranean.

Lots of facts about the chickens circled with unprecedented or simply bold assumptions. For example, it was mentioned in the ancient biblical records that the Phoenicians went on their ships to a distant land, rich in gold and precious stones. The researchers could not find such a country in every bank in Asia, Europe or Africa, so it can be assumed that the Phoenician ships even get to America, although they themselves do not attach much importance to such a discovery.

They managed to rule almost the entire coast of the Mediterranean, the largest and most influential colonies of their city in northern Africa, in Spain and the Mediterranean interior. At the same time, their colonies did not disappear until the end, the descendants of the Phoenicians to this day live on the shores of the Mediterranean, although their ancient language and ethnic identification have been lost. The researchers have proven that a third of the population of Malta derives their own genus from the colonists of Phenicia.

These old people undoubtedly became one of the most important in ancient history. This is a kind of colonial empire of antiquity. In addition, it was here for the first time that developed an alphabetical letter from which the alphabet of the Greeks and Romans appeared. You were the first to get around Africa by the sea. Their workshops created the best ships of their time, learned to do the best, including paint, glass in the ancient world. And this is not all the contribution to world culture.

The nature of the land gave every opportunity for his pity. The countries were small, but these websites had proven very fruitful. Wet sea winds brought rain and made unnecessary artificial irrigation. With deep antiquity, local residents grown olives, dates, grapes, breeding cows and sheep. Traces of agricultural archaeologists can be found as early as X millennium BC. e.

With the middle of the 3rd millennium BC e. The town grew up on the grounds of the villages of farmers and fishermen. The largest of them was a Fang and Arvad in the north, a Bibl in the middle, a Reifen and Sidon in the south.

Archaeologists' excavations were allowed to restore its appearance. The cities were reinforced by the walls, in the middle of them were Sanctuisa and Residences of local rulers, surrounded by global and brick houses with each other. In a small country, the earth was a huge asset because the city was built very tightly. The lack of space was particularly evident in Dash and Arvada. These two cities were on small islands not far from the shore. It even reached the fact that in the IX century. Bc e. Tsar Tira Hiram cast a dam and expanded the island on which the city was spread.

Houses in Phenicia. Usually built two-story two-story, with an open or born gallery on the top floor, where the owners lived. In the lower, often stone, the ground was stored for various reserves and slaves.

Carthage was built even closer - the largest Phoenician colony in North Africa. According to the ancient Roman historians, there were many six-story buildings with flat roofs in Carthage. They were so close that Roman soldiers during the storm of the city in 146 BC. Chr. E. They were moved from the roof to the roof of the board and were moved to another house.

Judging from the excavations in Ugarite, in ancient China The multi-storey round houses of the towers were built. The model of such a house on the three floors was found in Carthage.

Outside the house was decorated with painted stucco. The painting was below each other, milled, consisting of colored triangles, circles and ovals, fixed ribbons and teeth. A corridor went through the whole house inside. The court opened in its midst. There were residential buildings on both sides of the courtyard.

Excavations made it possible to get an idea of ​​furniture and everyday objects used by the Phoenicians. It is true, it is possible to judge the furniture mainly on small copies of metal and clay that are preserved in the tombs. Most likely, the Phoenicians used low tables, chairs, stools, flat beds. A large wooden chest, which held the main wealth of the house, held pride of place in the house. Those who were refrigerated covered it with a rug, and the poor were a mat.

In the middle of the streets, special drainage databases were dug, including a town in relative purity.

Each city with the neighboring district was a small state. None of them could unite the whole country into a single whole. Over the centuries the battle between them went on with varying degrees of success. In the middle of the II millennium BC. e. In the north dominated by UGRIT and in the middle - the Bible. In the first half of the 15th century. Bc e. The leading role went to the Si-Don (the modern city of Lebanon), which apparently appeared in the IV millennium BC. e. But around 1200 BC Chr. E. It was destroyed by the "peoples of the sea" (a group of Mediterranean peoples who moved into the XIII century BC. E. To the borders of ancient Egypt and the state of Hetnethites, presumably from the region). A shoout changed Sidonu. He managed to combine most of the chickens, but also briefly.

Understand the construction and life of the Phoenician city-state Help the huge archive of clay records from the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. e. With texts from clocks of 29 letters. It was discovered by archaeologists in Ugarite.

Ugritian society consisted of "people of the king" including officials and warriors, paharess and artisans all free citizens, "sons of Ugarita" and slaves. According to the documents, it is aware of the collective tax collection and call members of the municipalities for nationwide funding. The most important of them was military, rowing and work in government work. Serving them were kept.

The king was at the head of the state, but his power was weak. It was limited to the advice of city elders. Elections of civil servants in cities were made on the basis of property qualifications. Such a process, which became effective, for example, in Carthage, the structure of which was described by the ancient Greek philosopher Muv. Bc e. Aristotle.

Archaeological records and finds from archaeologists attest to the abundance of Phoenician cities and the skill of their artisans and jewelers. What was the basis of their prosperity?

The fruits of agriculture provided wealth, but due to the lack of land there could not be wealth. Its source started trading. In this ancient government, trade routes from all over anterior Asia were converged. The caravans were south, in ancient Egypt and Palestine, north in Asia Minor and Interfluve, ships carried goods on the Nile, on the island of the Aegean Sea and further west.

The Phoenicians' main usability was wood, in which it is acute. The city, especially the Biblist, traded the cedar, oak and cypress, grew on the slopes of the Lebanese mountains. From the tree, made ships and sarcophagi, they were placed mummies of Egyptian nobles. Good quality wine played an important role in trading. Olive oil was also an important product.

The Phoenicians were the first to start Production of purple varnish from a special type of mollusc. It stained woolen sheets and linen. These fabrics immediately became fashionable and enjoyed enormous demand in all neighboring countries. During the excavations of the ancient Phoenician cities, piles of empty seashells remained after ingesting paint.

The production area was very large. They lacked their fabric, and cheap unpainted wool was imported into the Chinese cattle quarters of Crete and later from all the forums in Asia. In ancient times and beautiful products made by Phoenician artisans in bronze and silver, as well as the famous Sidon glass, the makers of which were discovered in the 17th century. Bc e. In addition to the goods of local production, the Phoenicians traded and the fact that they were exported from Asia Minor, Cyprus, Crete. Their cities were the largest centers of merchanting. Silver and lead came from Malaya Asia, later iron. The Phoenicians exported copper from the island of Cyprus. From Crete they received items of artistic handicraft, products from other Mediterranean countries. The main center of trade relations with the West was UGRIT, and after its destruction - a tire.