What are the causes of injuries

Sports injuries

The wrong equipment, insufficient warming up or overloading - the causes of injuries in sports are manifold. The most common sports injuries include bruises, strains, torn muscle fibers, torn ligaments and sprains. But how do you recognize such a sports injury? What immediate measures should one take and what is the correct treatment?

Table of Contents


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Gentle and effective: doc® Arnica Cream provides relief for blunt injuries and bruises.

The most common sports injuries

Most common sports injury

Bruises after affected areas


Inflamed bursae after joints


Typical symptoms of sports injuries

Sports injuries can have a variety of symptoms. A sports injury such as a torn ligament usually manifests itself through swelling, hematomas (bruises) and pain.

In the event of a torn muscle fiber or an injury to the ligaments in the ankle or knee, the pain usually occurs acutely during exercise and in many cases is so severe that the sporting activity has to be stopped immediately.

If the patient suffers from a strain, sprain or contusion, the pain often occurs a little later after the injury. Sometimes this is only noticed after the end of the training.

Reasons for sports injuries

Common causes of sports injuries

One wrong step and it's done - unfortunately, sports injuries are anything but a rarity. The causes are varied, regardless of whether it is an injury while playing football, tennis or jogging.

Common reasons a sports injury may result are:

  • Lack of or insufficient warming up

  • Bad training condition

  • Exceeding own load limits

  • Missing breaks between training sessions and during the training itself

  • Incorrect execution of motion sequences

  • Missing protectors, for example when inline skating

  • The wrong sports shoes, for example, when jogging; worn sports shoes often do not give the foot sufficient support

  • Twisting, slipping

  • Third party fault (e.g. foul play in football)


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Gentle and effective: doc® Arnica Cream provides relief for blunt injuries and bruises.


Sports with a high risk potential

In addition to the classic sports such as skiing, football or tennis, where injuries often occur, caution should also be exercised in other sports activities in order to avoid sports injuries.

These are for example:

  • Volleyball and handball (particularly at risk: fingers, hands, shoulders)

  • Squash and badminton (particularly at risk: ankles, knees, back)

  • Dancing (particularly at risk: ankles)

  • Ice hockey (particularly at risk: hands, shoulders, knees)

  • Jogging or running in general (particularly at risk: ankles, thigh muscles)

  • Climbing (particularly at risk: fingers, hands, shoulders)

  • Golf (particularly at risk: back)

  • American football (particularly at risk: shoulders, hands, knees, ankles)


Diagnosis of sports injuries

Even initially harmless sports injuries should be examined by a doctor. Injuries that are not properly cured or treated can lead to consequential damage. With an exact diagnosis you are on the safe side, even if this can lead to an undesirable recommendation to take a break from exercising.

Some injuries could be prevented or their extent reduced if athletes, out of false ambition, did not ignore small, increasingly common complaints. Overwork, missing or too short a warm-up and too short periods of rest after exercise increase the risk of injury. Permanent strain on ligaments, tendons, muscles and joints can promote the development of chronic pain.

Bruise, sprain, strain? Symptoms help identify the cause

The orthopedist is a specialist in sports injuries. This can often tell from the symptoms whether it is, for example, a bruise or a strain. Comprehensive information from the doctor about the occurrence of the injury is a guideline for the diagnosis of a sports injury.

That means: How did the injury come about? What are the complaints? Have injuries occurred in the same place before?

This is followed by a clinical examination. On the basis of the symptoms and various function tests, the doctor can usually see quite quickly what type of sports injury it is.

He checks whether there is pain when the muscles are stressed or tensed, whether the movement of the joints is restricted, whether there is swelling or whether a bruise has occurred.

Imaging procedures to confirm the diagnosis

Certain imaging methods can be used to confirm a suspected diagnosis:

  • Ultrasound examination

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  • X-ray examination

If in doubt, go to the doctor

It happened quickly - the ankle was sprained or the knee was bruised. Usually, minor injuries heal without complications with appropriate treatment.

In some cases, however, a doctor may be advisable to rule out more serious injuries. This is especially true in the case of severe pain or pronounced swelling in the affected area.

PECH rule and medication

Sports injuries: treatment

Not every sports injury requires medical treatment - for minor injuries, immediate measures (PECH rule) and pain reliever medication are usually sufficient to get the symptoms under control. If you act early and purposefully in the event of a sports injury, you can positively influence the healing process. In addition to protecting and cooling the affected part of the body, reducing pain and inflammation play an important role. Find out what is important in the case of bruises, strains, torn ligaments and the like.

First aid for sports injuries: The PECH rule

In an acute case, the following applies to every injury: act according to the so-called PECH rule. A rule of thumb that every athlete should keep in mind.


Take a break

What to do with bruises, strains or sprains? Basically: Anyone who notices an injury should stop physical activity immediately and not continue training with clenched teeth. Better to take a break and keep the injured part of the body still!


Put on ice

The cold narrows the blood vessels, which can reduce the amount of bruising and swelling. Important: never put ice cream directly on the skin! Ice cubes wrapped in a cloth, a wet washcloth or cold spray are better.


Compression: put on a bandage

A tight bandage prevents the bleeding from swelling and spreading quickly. Ideally, you should immediately use a pain gel (for example with ibuprofen) and make an ointment bandage. Arnica cream has proven itself as a herbal alternative (see below).



Now elevate the affected part of the body. This reduces the blood supply and the fluid that has leaked into the tissue is transported away more quickly. In this way, the swelling can be reduced.

Sports injury? Ibuprofen ointments and pain gels for treatment

Pain gels with ibuprofen have proven effective for the treatment of sports injuries. Ibuprofen is one of the safest pain relievers available without a prescription and is well tolerated. Due to its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects, ibuprofen is ideal for sports injuries such as torn muscle fibers.

Advantage: Due to the local, external application in the form of a pain gel, ibuprofen works exactly where it is needed, without burdening the rest of the organism.

If you value a particularly fast and precise effect, you should pay attention to the so-called microgel galenics when choosing an appropriate preparation from the pharmacy. Here ibuprofen is incorporated into tiny micelles, so that the active ingredient can more easily overcome the epidermis and penetrate the deeper target tissue more quickly. For precise pain relief after a short time!

Arnica cream: the herbal alternative

If you prefer to use a herbal remedy for sports injuries, arnica cream based on a high-dose tincture of arnica flowers is available. The ingredients of the well-known medicinal plant (for example essential oils, flavonoids) have an anti-inflammatory and decongestant effect. Those who use appropriate preparations can also benefit from their skin-friendliness. Find out more about arnica as a herbal alternative here.


doc® arnica

Gentle and effective: doc® Arnica Cream provides relief for blunt injuries and bruises.


How can you prevent sports injuries?

If you pay attention to a few basic rules when exercising, you can significantly reduce the risk of bruises, strains and sprains. With the right preparation, training and competition are not only fun, injuries can also be actively prevented.

In addition to warming up, there are other things you need to prepare for, for example the right equipment or learning the right technique (for example tennis or Nordic walking) in order to avoid injuries.

Exercise properly - avoid injuries while exercising

Below is an overview of the most important rules for preventing sports injuries:

  • The right equipment: Good jogging shoes, helmets and protectors for certain sports - the right equipment is the be-all and end-all in sports.

  • Stretching before the start of training: Take into account all the major muscle groups and take a few minutes.

  • Warm up: Do not go to your limit immediately, but gradually increase the training intensity - if you go “full throttle” right from the start, you risk a painful torn muscle fiber, among other things. You should therefore start with a relaxed endurance run, for example when jogging.

  • Recognize your own limits: Especially if you haven't trained for a long time, you shouldn't immediately go to extremes. Take a break in between and pay attention to your body's signals. No marathon runner has fallen from the sky yet!

Also important: if you have discovered a new sport for yourself, learning certain techniques and movement sequences under professional guidance is often indispensable.

Incidentally, this also applies to sports such as yoga. So pay attention to the instructions of the trainer. Little by little, the movements will become part of your flesh and blood.

Tips to Prevent Injury