What are fire protection systems

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Fire protection is divided into four areas, which are of different importance to architects:

Structural fire protection
All fire protection measures that are taken in connection with the construction or modification of structural systems are part of the "structural fire protection", e.g .:

  • the external development of the building with extinguishing water,
  • the installation and movement areas for the fire brigade,
  • the formation of fire compartments e.g. through fire walls,
  • the dimensioning or standard-compliant creation of load-bearing and room-enclosing structures, e.g. to protect areas with a high risk of fire.

The main criteria are:

  • the fire behavior of building materials,
  • the fire resistance of the components,
  • the planning and creation of sufficient escape and rescue routes for people and animals.
Plant fire protection
The "system fire protection" is divided into two areas:
  • Fire protection in technical building equipment
    Structural (shafts, false ceilings with fire resistance) or technical (smoke extraction systems, fire dampers) fire protection measures protect the increasingly complex technical systems in buildings from outbreaks or damage in the event of fires.
  • Fire protection through technical facilities and systems
    Fire protection measures that are implemented by technical systems are part of the "system fire protection": These can be preventive measures (e.g. fire detection, alarming) as well as operational measures (e.g. fire prevention, fire extinguishing, limitation of fire spread, mechanical smoke extraction).
The most important systems for fire protection are:
  • Fire alarm systems according to DIN 14675 fire alarm systems - construction and operation,
  • Fire extinguishing systems,
  • natural and mechanical smoke extraction systems DIN 18232 smoke and heat exemption,
  • Systems for retention of extinguishing water.

Technical systems can prevent or minimize unwanted restrictions on use through structural fire protection measures. Fire doors or gates are z. B. kept open by magnets that are monitored by smoke detectors and then close automatically in the event of a fire. This prevents disruptions to normal operations.

Organizational fire protection
Structural and technical fire protection measures are usually supplemented by organizational measures, such as:

  • Maintenance, servicing, use of and correct handling of structural and technical fire protection equipment, e.g. extinguishing devices,
  • Marking and keeping escape and rescue routes clear,
  • Notice of fire protection regulations for fire prevention and for measures in an emergency (emergency call fire brigade),
  • Establishment of detailed fire protection regulations for certain persons (e.g. fire protection officers) with special tasks (e.g. taking fire-fighting measures, switching off systems, instructing the fire brigade, evacuating rooms or determining the completeness of all persons).

Organizational fire protection tasks are

  • effective and early fire detection and fighting,
  • the rescue of particularly endangered people,
  • the minimization of consequential damage.

Defensive fire protection
Defensive fire protection includes all passive and active measures that fire brigades and other emergency services take before and during the fire incident in order to reduce direct and indirect damage (e.g. from extinguishing water, toxic gases in the environment).

Expertise on the subject

Basics

Building regulations for standard buildings

The building regulations of the federal state in which they are erected are decisive for the fire protection requirements for structures such as buildings.

Escape / rescue routes

Definition of escape and rescue routes

In general, the two terms are combined under the escape route in the building regulations. On the other hand, there are differences in special building regulations.

Basics

Building classes

The requirements for structural fire protection in buildings are measured in the model building regulations and all state building regulations according to the building classes.

Smoke and heat extractors

Smoke / heat extraction systems (RWA): types and tasks

A smoke and heat extraction system (RWA) is used for preventive fire protection and should remove the smoke as quickly as possible in the event of a fire ...

Basics

Protection goals in fire protection

Structural measures can prevent the spread of fires. The rescue of people and animals as well as effective fire fighting work must be made possible.

Basics

Regulations for regulated and other special structures

According to the model building regulations, special requirements can be placed on high-rise buildings, industrial buildings, sales outlets, meeting places, hospitals or schools, for example.