Where are the piston pumps used?

Piston pumps for liquids and gases

The Piston pump is a pump that is also called a reciprocating pump in technical jargon. It is one of the positive displacement pumps and has been used by do-it-yourselfers, craftsmen and industry for more than 2000 years because of its simplicity in construction and application. Piston pumps can convey both liquids and gases, which is why they are known as bicycle pumps, groundwater pumps and oil pumps, among other things. However, the functioning of the piston pump is considered to be obsolete: You caused a strong Pulsation, which is why the diaphragm pump is increasingly replacing the traditional piston pump.

Synonym (s): reciprocating pumps, piston pumps

How the piston pump works

Structure and functionality

As already mentioned, the construction of reciprocating pumps is very simple. They only consist of a few parts:

  1. Housing with inlet and outlet (also Pressure vessel or pressure vessel)
  2. Inlet valve, too Sniffer valve: The entrances and exits are often isolatedin order not to let the uncontrolled escape of liquid or gas and to minimize the volume of the piston pump.
  3. Reciprocating piston with piston valve and lever
  4. Suction pipe

The piston moves up and down via the lever, which is either hand-operated (hand pump) or operated by electromagnets or motors. Depending on the position of the piston, it opens or closes Sniffer valve and piston valve. In addition, the air pressure is crucial for the function of the piston pump. When the piston is at the bottom of the cylinder and then moves upwards, an ever increasing volume is created in the lower cylinder space and the air pressure lets the pumped medium rise through the suction pipe up into the lower cylinder space with the bottom valve open.

When the piston lowers again and presses on the medium, the bottom valve or sniffer valve closes due to the pressure. At the same time, the valve in the piston opens and the liquid or gas flows into the upper cylinder space. When the piston moves upwards again, three things happen: First, the piston valve closes again due to the pressure in the upper cylinder chamber. Second, the resulting pressure pushes the pumped medium up in the upper cylinder space, which then flows into the outlet. Third, the bottom valve opens and new fluid flows into the lower cylinder space. Then the cycle starts all over again. A changing pressure ratio is the secret of the piston pump. The Delivery rate is as always from the Delivery head dependent. The higher the delivery head, the less liquid or gas is pumped per hour. So that the pressure or the level does not come to an end set Exceeding the maximum value or falling below its minimum value is ensured by a mechanically or electrically operated Pressure switch in such cases for switching off and on (e.g. for Pressure increase) of the pump.

application areas

With the aid of the reciprocating piston pump, both liquids and gas are conveyed by the negative pressure. The substances can even be combined, depending on the type of pump. This is what makes the piston pump special versatile. It can also be used when pumping liquids high pressures can be achieved. In addition, the volumes and the mass of the liquids determine concretely (Dosing pumps). Piston pumps can be used manually, electric or be hydraulically driven. These skills mean that they can be used, for example, in the following areas:

  1. Groundwater pumps on a garden fountain
  2. Agriculture, for example with a batteryBackpack sprayer
  3. Dosing pumps (e.g. soap dispensers)
  4. Bicycle pumps
  5. other air pumps
  6. Own water supply: The piston pump is one of the most important components of private water supply in Germany. As part of a domestic waterworks, the pressure in the piston pump must be above the Pressure switch can be set.
  7. Oil pumps (manually, hydraulically, electrically driven)

Disadvantages of the reciprocating pump

Due to the working principle of displacement and suction, one comes Flow pulsation conditions. This means that the pump cannot produce a regular delivery. That was also the reason why centrifugal pumps are slowly replacing the successful piston pump after industrialization. The operation of the piston pump is therefore considered to be obsolete. In order to make up for this disadvantage, manufacturers are increasing their weight membrane instead of piston or two reciprocating pistons who alternate their work steps (called: inline pumps).


The following types belong to Piston pump:

Plunder is the English word for diver or plunger (hence they are also called plunger pumps). In the Danish pastry pump, the piston rod is also the piston. In contrast to other piston pumps, it does not have proper compression because there is always space between the piston and the cylinder wall. Instead, a stuffing box seals Danish pumps. For example, Speck offers high-pressure plunder pumps that can pump pure water or other non-abrasive media.

Instead of one piston, two pistons in a sleeve do the work with this type of pump. Hence the name double piston pumps is also used.

These hydraulic pumps primarily convey special fluids and mineral oils and can be used in machine tools, hydraulic travel drives and wind turbines.

Or oscillating armature pumps and oscillating piston pumps: These three types can also work in a free-piston machine, i.e. a combination of a heat engine and a driven machine (e.g. pump).

Manufacturers and service providers

OSNA's delivery program includes worldwide sales of tested pumps, Accessories systems of the own brand and other well-known pump manufacturers. High pressure pumps, underwater pumps and piston pumps with a delivery height of 60 m and a delivery rate of maximum 2.5 m3 / h for Domestic water Supply are part of it.
C.A. Loewe
lion has existed for 128 years as a family business with Berlin Mitte as its location. Its range of services includes hose and fittings technology, sealing and insulation technology as well as industrial requirements, including pumps, grease guns and lubricating devices. Requests can be done directly on the website.
Steffens is a pump specialist from Germany. He sells among other things type-testedSubmersible pumps, motor and hand pumps from Water servant, Osna and pumps the GRL Jung series. In addition, they still have the as stock items checked Decades old Water goblin Piston pumps from Ernst Weber for drinking water treatment and seawater execution. Also spare parts for pumps, for example one Mechanical seal is available and deliverable from Steffens. A mechanical seal is a dynamic seal used to seal rotating shafts against a static wall. Steffens also offers a spare parts and repair service and gives its customers a two-year guarantee on new and used reciprocating pumps.
Among other things, SPECK offers buffaloPumps, peripheral gear pumps, vacuum pumps, rotary vane pumps, centrifugal pumps and piston pumps of the BS 15 series with the Engine power 0.37 kW for the House technic and industry. The Speck piston pumps reach a delivery head of 40 m, delivery rates between a maximum of 1 to 3 m3 / h and a motor output of 0.25 to 1.1 kW. The piston pump of the BS 50 series, for example, comes with a sniffer valve, V-belt pulleys, Belt guard and more isolated Motor clamping rocker. A belt guard minimizes wear on the pump. The Speck peripheral impeller pumps with Magnetic coupling are in turn characterized by a High pressure off at low flow rates. The Magnetic coupling function is as follows: A magnetic coupling works with the help of a magnetic field. They are used to switch drives on and off and to reverse the direction of rotation. Thanks to the magnetic coupling, the pumps are maintenance-free and leak-free. The buffalo pumps from SPECK are known for their smooth running and their double arrow-toothed precision gear and are considered high-pressure boiler feed pumps for the House technic.
Lappe is a supplier of tested piston and centrifugal pumps from manufacturers such as Osna, Reckers, Wasserkobold, Loewe / Grundfos and Speck. Depending on the color coding, the products are either in stock or at short notice available or the delivery time has to be requested first.
Reckers offers a wide range for plant and pump construction as well as for the hydraulic industry. This includes piston pumps of the RL series, pumping stations with horizontal and vertical tanks and Büffel pumps type S 456. Also piston pumps with galvanized Pressure vessel with 150 to 3000 l capacity and an operating pressure of 4 to 6 bar are included. They divide their offer into building technology and industrial technology.
The company deals intensively with pump solutions, drinking water treatment, water distribution and wastewater treatment and is the world market leader in this area. Grundfos bought the Loewe company from Lüneburg in the 1980s. So went the famous Loewe Water servant Piston pumps from the 1960s became the property of Grundfos. The slogan of the Wasserknecht piston pump is: "A lifetime serves you faithfully and rightly - the Loewe Wasserknecht serves you". The robust Wasserknecht piston pumps are mainly used for private water supply and in agriculture.
The Nürtingen-based company offers a wide range of tested pumps, including the series names Jabsco and Flojet. To the Stock items include impeller pumps, gear pumps, diaphragm pumps and rotary piston pumps. The website contains further company details.
Verder is an international pump manufacturer that sells compressed air diaphragm pumps, centrifugal pumps and piston pumps as stock items for the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries.
IS pumps
IST offers solutions for transporting, dosing and filling liquids and viscous media. Dosing, compressed air diaphragm and rotary piston pumps are part of the delivery program. Rotary piston pumps from IST achieve a Delivery rate from 0.02 to 102 m3 / h. The language of correspondence for inquiries is German.

Buy used piston pumps

On Ebay classifieds there are numerous, overtaken Buy piston pumps. The prices and engine performance vary greatly. On average, you can buy a used piston pump for 150 to 500 euros. Usually the used piston pumps are immediately available. Well-known manufacturers such as Loewe Wasserknecht or Osna can be found among the offers. '