How does hydrogen form H +


properties

Hydrogen is the 1st element of the periodic table of the elements and under normal conditions a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas in the form of the diatomic molecule H.2 . The nucleus of the hydrogen atom, symbol H, consists of a proton and an electron. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 and the atomic weight is 1.0079. Hydrogen is one of the main components of water and all organic materials. It is widespread on earth and throughout the universe. There are three isotopes of hydrogen: "normal" hydrogen, deuterium and tritium.

99.98% of naturally occurring hydrogen is "normal" hydrogen.
Deuterium, known as "heavy hydrogen", has - besides protons and electrons - a neutron and thus has twice the mass of "normal" hydrogen. Only about 2% of the deuterium is found in nature. Deuterium and "normal" hydrogen "are stable isotopes.
Tritium, as a long-lived isotope, is also called "super-heavy hydrogen", consists of 2 neutrons and is about three times as heavy as "normal" hydrogen. It occurs naturally in tiny amounts, but it can also be produced artificially with the help of various nuclear reactions.

Components of the atomic nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes

hydrogen

deuteriumTritium


use
:
The most important application of hydrogen is the synthesis of ammonia. Hydrogen is increasingly used in fuel upgrading, cracking (hydrocracking) and sulfur elimination. Very large amounts of hydrogen are used in the catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oils in order to obtain hardened, solid fat. Hydrogenation is also used in the manufacture of organic chemical products. Very large amounts of hydrogen are used in conjunction with oxygen or fluorine as rocket fuel and as rocket fuel powered by nuclear energy.

Properties:
Hydrogen has a molecular weight of 2.01594. As a gas, it has a density of 0.071 g / l and 1 ATM at 0 ÂșC. Its relative density compared with that of air is 0.0695. Of all known substances, hydrogen is the most flammable. Hydrogen is somewhat more soluble in organic solvents than in water. Many metals absorb hydrogen. The absorption of hydrogen by steel can make steel brittle and lead to breakdowns in chemical processes. At normal temperature, hydrogen is a very inert substance unless it has been activated; for example by a suitable catalyst. Hydrogen is very reactive at high temperatures. At very high temperatures, molecular hydrogen breaks down into its free atoms. Hydrogen is a powerful reducing agent, even at moderate ambient temperatures.
It reacts with the oxides and the chlorine compounds of many metals, such as silver, copper, lead spheres, bismuth and mercury, to form pure metals. It reduces some salts such as nitrates, nitrites, sodium and potassium cyanide to the corresponding metals. Hydrogen reacts with a number of elements, metals and non-metals to form hydrides, such as NAH, KH, H2S and PH3. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water or hydrogen peroxide, H2O2.

Atomic hydrogen reacts with organic compounds to form a complex mixture of products with ethylene C.2H4 for example to ethane, C2H6 and butane, C4H10. The high temperatures that arise through the recombination of hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen molecules are used in hydrogen welding.

Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to form water. This reaction is extremely slow at ambient temperature. With the help of a catalyst (e.g. platinum) or an electrical spark, the reaction can be accelerated and the reaction proceeds explosively.

Health Effects of Hydrogen

Paths of gas entry:
The substance can get into the body through inhalation. High concentrations of this gas can displace a lot of oxygen from the air. The following symptoms may occur in people who are exposed to such an atmosphere for a long time: headache, ringing in the ears, nausea, tiredness, dizziness,
Vomiting and depression. The skin may turn blue. In some circumstances, ingestion of hydrogen can also be fatal.
It is not assumed that hydrogen is mutagenic, embryotoxic or has the potential to cause malformations or infertility. Existing breathing difficulties can be aggravated by increased hydrogen uptake. If there is no or insufficient inclusion, a harmful concentration of this gas in the air can very quickly be reached.

Physical / chemical hazards:
Hydrogen is extremely flammable. The gas is lighter than air and reacts violently with air, oxygen, halogens and strong oxidizing agents. Heating up and many reactions of the gas can cause fires or explosions. Metal catalysts (platinum and nickel) intensify the reactions. Mixtures of hydrogen and air form quickly and are very explosive. High concentrations of hydrogen in the air displace oxygen with the risk of unconsciousness or death.

Hints:
Before entering a room, the oxygen level in the air should be checked. Since there are no changes in smell, existing toxic substances cannot be perceived. Hydrogen concentrations are measured with suitable commercially available gas detectors (a normal combustible gas detector is not suitable for this purpose).

First aid:
In case of fire: Interrupt fuel supply; if this is not possible and there is no danger to the environment, the fire can burn out left on its own. Otherwise, extinguish the fire with water (foam), powder or carbon dioxide
In the event of an explosion: Fires should be fought with water from a safe distance.
Ventilation: Fresh air supply and calming down, artificial ventilation may be necessary. Get medical help.

Environmental impacts of hydrogen

Environmental stability: Hydrogen occurs naturally in the atmosphere. The gas spreads very quickly in well-ventilated areas.

Consequences for Plants or animals:Any effect on animals would be related to an oxygen deficiency. There is also no damage to plants, only frost damage can occur if plants are exposed to a rapidly expanding (thereby cooling) gas.

Consequences for marine life: For this we are z. No information available at the moment.

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