What is lotic in fresh water

German Glossary

EnglishGermanExplanation Alluvial depositsAlluvial deposits, alluvial soilYoung sediments deposited by streams and rivers Alluvial riverAlluvial flowRunning waters with a bed made up of self-deposited sediments and still active bed formation through erosion and sedimentation AlluviumAlluvium, alluvial soildeposited sediments Anabranched riverMulti-bed channel flowStreams with several branches of the river, which are separated by large, usually overgrown islands AnadromousAnadromousAdjective for fish that spawn in fresh water after having spent most of their life in the sea and becoming sexually mature there. See also AquiferAquiferWater-permeable porous soil layer that can carry larger amounts of usable water, BackswampsmarchWetlands in the low-lying areas of the floodplain, away from the main stream, where entrained mud and fine sediments are deposited Backwater effectBackwater effectInfluence of downstream on water level and flow velocity BankshoreLateral limitation of the power hose Bank full dischargeBoard full drainFlow rate at which the water level reaches the highest point on the bank barBankSubmerged or submerged sole structure made of sand, gravel or other loose material that is created in shallow water and is significantly longer than the water depth Base flowLow water dischargePersistently low runoff, mostly groundwater fed BathymetryBathymetrySpatial distribution of the water depths below a specified reference water level. Since the water level in rivers has a gradient, bathymetry should not be confused with Bed levelSole heightElevation of the bed of a stream or river above a horizontal reference value BedloadGround freightSediments that are transported by rolling, sliding or jumping over the bottom of the water Bed material loadSediment loadTransport of sediments that also occur in the bottom sediment. They can be transported as or BedrockStanding rockSolidified bedrock under sedimentary soils and loose material Bed shear stressShear force, drag tensionTangential force per unit area that is exerted by the current on the river bed, as a measure of the current strength. See also and Bed topographyDepth profileSpatial distribution of the bottom elevations in relation to a reference height; not to be confused with BenchBankSediment accumulation along the shore, too BenthicBenthiclives on or in the bottom of fresh or salt water, in contrast to BenthosBenthosPlants and animals that live in, on or sessile on the bottom of the water BermBermSediment accumulation along the shore, too Biogeographical regionBiogeographical regionRelatively large area with characteristic societies of natural communities and species, as a result of the same environmental influences and a common evolutionary and immigration history. Please refer BivalveShellfishClass of molluscs (Mollusca), with a casing made of two calcareous shells BouldersStone blocksStone fragments with grain sizes> 200 mm Braided riverFurcation flowRunning waters with numerous branches of the river, often separated by only temporary, vegetation-free islands Buffer stripBank marginsVegetation - often strips of wood on the bank embankment, which among other things prevents the entry of fine sediments CascadecascadeRiver bed full of disordered boulders in steep, narrow stretches of river CatadromousCatadromeAdjective for fish that spawn in the sea after having spent most of their life in fresh water and becoming sexually mature there. See also CatchmentCatchment areaLand area that is drained by a river and its tributaries. See also . Catchment area is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms Chute channelFlood channel, meander jumpA stretch of flow through a sandbank or floodplain that shortens the main stream ClayClay, loammineral particles with grain sizes <0.002 mm CobblesStonesStone fragments with a grain size of 63-200 mm CrenalKrenalSource region in the longitudinal zoning of rivers. See also and CrevassebreakthroughBreakthrough of the natural bank wall Crevasse splaySediment compartmentsfan-shaped sediment deposit behind one CrossingFlat section, fordRelatively flat distance between two successive river bends in navigable rivers Cross-overFlat section, fordRelatively flat distance between two successive river bends in navigable rivers CrustaceanCrustaceanInvertebrate (without a spine) with a solid exoskeleton (for stabilization and external protection of the body) with at least five pairs of legs on the thorax CurrentflowMovement of water in a body of water dateReference height, reference heightReference altitude value, e.g. mean sea level DegradationdeteriorationIn hydromorphology: reduction in depth variability through erosion or sediment removal; in ecology: worsening habitat conditions DischargeDrainVolume of water that flows through a defined cross-section per unit of time Drainage basinDrainage areaArea of ‚Äč‚Äčland that is drained by a river and its tributaries. See also . Catchment area is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms DuneduneBottom structure in the order of about 10% of the water depth. Two-dimensional dunes have long crests perpendicular to the direction of flow; three-dimensional dunes have short crowns. EcoregionEcoregionSee and Emergent plansEmerging plantsPlants that have roots in shallow water and have the stem and most of the leaves above the surface of the water EurytopicEurytopAdjective for aquatic organisms that tolerate standing and flowing water conditions. See also and FloodplainFloodplain, floodplainLand along a stream or river that is inundated at high tide and is formed from the sediment deposited during the inundation Flow resistanceFlow resistance, flow resistanceForces that counteract the runoff. A low flow resistance implies high flow speeds and shallow water depths, a high flow resistance implies low flow speeds and high water depths Flow velocityFlow velocity, flow velocityDistance covered by the water per unit of time as a measure of the flow strength. See also and Geomorphic unitGeomorphological unitArea with a landform created by erosion or sedimentation inside or outside the river. also, or. Geomorphological unit is a spatial unit in the multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms GlideSlideZone of relatively shallow flow between shallower rushing waves and deeper pools, similar to the somewhat deeper ones Gravelgravelmineral particles with a grain diameter of 2-63 mm HabitatHabitat, habitatlocal environment in which a species or stage of life lives and grows. The determining factor is the (mostly physical) environment that surrounds the population or age group. Hydraulic roughnessHydraulic roughness, hydraulic roughnessResistance of surfaces to the water flowing past; Parameter that determines the Hydraulic unitHydraulic unitSpatially delimited unit with the same surface current and sediment structure. Hydraulic unit is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms ImpoundmentStowageStructure built to hold a certain water level InfaunaSoil faunaAnimals living in the ground that bury themselves in the substrate InvertebratesInvertebratesAnimals without a spine IcelandislandLandform surrounded by rivers, which protrudes from the water when the runoff is full KrenalKrenalSource region in the longitudinal zoning of rivers. See also and Landscape unitLandscape unity, natural spacePart of the catchment area with the same landscape elements, also a physiographic unit. Landscape unit is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms LeveeDikeSee also . Artificially built earth wall parallel to the bank to protect against flooding LimneticLimneticRefers to lakes and pond habitats, adjective for aquatic invertebrates that prefer stagnant water LimnophilicLimnophilAdjective for aquatic organisms that prefer standing water. See also and LoticLoticRefers to fast flowing water, as in most streams and rivers MacroinvertebratesMacrofaunaAnimals without a spine (invertebrates) that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye (macro,> 0.5 mm) MacrophyteHigher plantsAll aquatic higher plants, mosses and characeae, with the exception of unicellular phytoplankton and diatoms MacrozoobenthosMacrozoobenthosInvertebrates that live on or in the ground Meandering riverMeandering riverRiver with a single course and one> 1.5 MeasuremeasureSee> Improvement measure> and MesohabitatMesohabitatspatially delimitable habitat unit consisting of relatively homogeneous the species or life stages serve as. Please refer MicrohabitatMicrohabitatSpatially definable unit of a species with the same substrate, plant cover or physical structures that are important for a species, e.g. as a spawning or food substrate Mitigation measureImprovement measureActivity to mitigate the effects of impairment MollusksMolluscsUnsegmented invertebrates (without a spine) that develop an external or stunted calcium shell Morphological unitMorphological unitPlease refer Mudmudpulpy fine sediment deposits consisting of clay and silt with grain sizes <0.02 mm; often formed in water and deposited at the bottom of lakes, rivers and estuaries Natural leveeNatural bank wallingRaised wall along the river bank, consisting of sediments that were deposited when the river banked Oxbow lakeBackwaterremaining water after separating a meander from the river PebblePebble, pebblemineral particles with a grain size of 2-20 mm PelagicpelagicOpen water life and diet, as opposed to Physiographic unitPhysiographic unitPlease refer PhytoplanktonPhytoplanktonMicroscopic plants that mostly float passively or drift in the water, especially diatoms, green algae, golden algae, dinoflagellates and blue algae Point barSliding bank, sliding slopeSediment bank on the inner arch of a meander poolReversing current, KolkRelatively deep, calm section in a stream or river. Pools alternate with or in a gravel river and with or in a navigable body of water PotamalPotamalUnderflow of a flowing water, zone of the lowland rivers in the longitudinal zoning of the flowing water, see also and PotholeKolkDeep circular leaching in bedrock as a result of abrasion from entrained particles PressurePressure, stressHydromorphology (pressure): Force per unit area that is exerted on a surface by the water column above it; Water Framework Directive (pollution): direct environmental impacts of a use such as agriculture, industry, hydropower or shipping RapidsRapidsRiver bed with boulders in irregular lines in a sloping, narrow section of the river ReachStretch of riverSection of the river with almost homogeneous boundary conditions in which the river receives a uniform spectrum of internal processes and forms. River section is a spatial unit in multiscale hydromorphological processes and forms regionregionRelatively large area with the same climatic, geographical, tectonic etc. influences, also or. Region is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms Restoration measureRenaturation measureActivity to improve the condition of degraded waters, e.g. by improving the water quality or changing the hydromorphological conditions RheophilicRheophilicAdjective for aquatic organisms that prefer flowing water, see also and RhithralRhithralRunning water zone of the longitudinal zoning of rivers, corresponds to the trout and grayling region, see also and RidgeMeander spurAge in the floodplain far from the active river bed RiffleIntoxicationrelatively flat, fast-flowing section of circular rivers RiparianBank, close to the bankBank zone along streams and rivers with a higher density, diversity and productivity of plants and animals than the adjacent higher areas RippleRipple, sand waveSmall, a few centimeters high bottom shape with a long crown at right angles to the direction of flow River elementFlow elementPart of the river habitat including organisms, sediments, plants, wood etc., too. Flow element is a spatial unit in the multiscale hydromorphological processes and forms River sectorRiver sectorPlease refer River segmentRiver section, flow sectionStream course with the same influences of the valley shape and kinetic energy, see also. River stretch is a spatial unit in the multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms runFastZone of relatively shallow flow between shallower rushing and deeper pools, similar to the somewhat shallower one sandsandmineral particles with a grain size of 0.063-2 mm ScourScour formationLocal removal of sediments from the river bed by flowing water Scroll barAlluvial coneHighest point of the sedimentsedimentSolid particles that are eroded, transported and deposited in the river Sediment yieldSediment inputAmount of sediment per unit area that is eroded in the catchment area SiltSiltmineral particles with a grain size of 0.002-0.063 mm SinuositySinuosityRatio between the lengths measured along the course of the river and along the axis of the meander curve; Curve measure of river bends Specific stream powerSpecific towing force in relation to the river width as a measure of the flow strength StepThreshold, cascadeSteep accumulation of boulders and rubble in the river cross-section, always with an erosion scour at the lower end, which was washed out by the rushing water Stream powerTowing powerEnergy dissipation of the flowing water against the bottom as a measure of the flow strength, see also and StressorimpairmentImpairment in the sense of a direct environmental impact of a use SubreachSubsectionPlease refer Suspended loadDissolved sediment loadSediments transported in the water column, which are prevented from being deposited by upward turbulence. The released cargo can consist of and SwaleDepression in the groundDepression, incision between neighboring or old ones TerraceRiver terrace, bank terraceInactive, historical floodplain above the current river and floodplain level ThalwegValley pathLine connecting the lowest points of all cross sections in the longitudinal direction of a river ThreadRiver bed, river courseRiver course in river typologies. An embedding channel has only one river course in each cross-section, a multi-bed channel has more than one in each cross-section. Wandering riverWinding riverEmbedding channel that splits locally into two arms, as a transition type between the furcation flow and the meandering flow WashloadTurbiditySediments that are finer than the bottom substrate and are transported in the water column regardless of the flow strength Water bodyBody of waterRelatively large, delimited volume of water Water depthWater depthHeight of the water column, height difference between the water level and the bottom surface. Water levelWater level, water levelHeight of the water surface above a horizontal reference point, reference value WatershedCatchment areaLand area that is drained by a river and its tributaries.See also . Catchment area is a spatial unit in multi-scale hydromorphological processes and forms