What Latin word means elsewhere

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(32) February 1 - Waste

A word from the technical language of the book printer has penetrated into the general language and also into our series "The Year of Words": Waste. Christine Gröneweg from Cloppenburg suggested the noun. Although: General language is perhaps a bit exaggerated: It is more of an educational language expression. Someone, who Waste is talking or writes, expresses things that have no lasting value, which are already out of date the moment he presents them.

To Waste one reads in the large dictionary that it is from the Middle Latin maculatura (›Stained, damaged piece‹) is coming. This, in turn, is too Latin maculare (›To stain, stain, defile‹) and - according to Kluge's Etymological Dictionary - to macula ›Hole, gap, damaged area, stain‹ formed. The noun Flaw has the same origin: it is different from the foreign word Waste, which one has Latin origin due to the ending -ulature still looks at directly, a so-called loan word, that is, completely Germanized in pronunciation and spelling.

In the print shop, one understands by Waste first of all the sheets that have become damaged or faulty in the press, but then also any kind of printed waste paper that is no longer usable and can be turned into new paper by pulping. The verb maculate This means precisely this: ›pulverize printed matter‹ - the fate of many a hopeful writer, whose works sell so badly that they are not worth the paper and the publisher can therefore earn more money from raw materials than from sales of the books. "The barely born word wanders warm and wet into the press," writes Heinrich Heine, "and what I am thinking and feeling at this moment may be wasted tomorrow at noon."

But sometimes an author is lucky. The Leipzig publisher Brockhaus says that the works of the philosopher Schopenhauer had been lying on the floor under the roof with him for many years as not for sale, and that he was close to having them as Waste until suddenly Schopenhauer's star rose and everyone wanted to read it. Today he is considered one of the most important thinkers of the 19th century.

Although Schopenhauer criticized pretty much everything that came up to him: the verb complain (›To complain about something, to blame‹) has nothing to do with Flaw and Waste to do. It comes from to flaw (›Doing business‹, Low German maken) and goes back to dealers who tried to lower the price by discovering defects in the goods. Word similarity is not the same as word relationship. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(33) February 2 - word

Many have certainly been waiting for this for a long time: What would the “Year of Words” be without a column on the word word? A common word that word, of course - but that's why it's exciting. Because nobody cares about it normally. But you can expect interesting things if you do some research.

Etymologically, i.e. on the origin of the word, it can be reported that the word already occurs in Old High German, even in Germanic, and that it has an Indo-European root who- ›Say, speak‹, which is also the basis of words in other Indo-European languages: z. B. Latin verb (›Word‹), Lithuanian vardas (›Name‹) and Greek eiro (>I say<), rhetor (›Speaker‹) and rhema (›Said, statement‹).

Difficulties are sometimes caused by the plural (the "plural") of word. There are two forms: Words and Words, and both mean different things. The word word namely has (at least) two meanings: 1. ›smallest linguistic unit of sound form and meaning that is independent in the sentence‹; 2. ›something that you express coherently as an expression of your thoughts or feelings‹. The plural Words will for the first, the plural Words used for the second meaning. Words are several individual linguistic units (for example in "the year of words"), Words are a coherent linguistic utterance made up of individual Words exists, but not with regard to its components, but only interested as a whole (for example: "with these words [› with this statement, so speaking ‹] she left the room": from how many Words the statement exists exactly is irrelevant). - Incidentally, we find a similar distinction in the plural of country and man: countries are several individual, clearly delimited areas that can be counted if necessary ("the countries Spain and Portugal are on the Iberian Peninsula"); Land are several, in principle different, but viewed as a unit ("in all countries from the North Sea to the Alps"). - Men are several single individuals; Men are people who belong together and form a group, who can also be viewed individually, but whose individuality and number are irrelevant. (The plural Men is nowadays rather out of date and only used in the sense of ›followers, team‹; at All hands on deck! there is a short form: that e has failed, so that - if it weren't so cumbersome - actually Man would have to write).

Yes, words are sometimes complicated: with these words we want to close for today. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(34) February 3 - horde

The German language knows many words from other languages. It does not differ in this from other languages: there is not a single one whose vocabulary does not contain foreign words. That has always been the case, because people of different origins have always been in contact with each other, it has always been the normal case that people speak more than one language (however good or fragmentary), and it is inevitable that words be taken over.

In many cases it is not possible to tell at all that these are foreign words. Who would think of such familiar everyday expressions as window, sober, bag, table, Wine or brick from Latin, bishop, Angel, church or inch (›Abgabe, Maut‹) from the Greek and admiral, arsenal, Borage (›Cucumber herb‹), Average or mattress come from Arabic?

We rarely find words from Mongolian in this country - but they also exist. Our “Urdeutsch” sounding and looking word horde belongs to it. Under one horde According to the ten-volume dictionary of the Duden, one understands a "(with a certain intention wandering) disordered (wild) crowd, crowd, which one (in a certain way) has to defend against"; the word, as it goes on in the Duden, is used “often derogatory”. One knows among other things Hordes of young people, photo reporters or day trippers; drew in the Thirty Years War Hordes plundering mercenaries through the country.

In ethnology one understands by one horde in addition, a group of related families living without a fixed social order with a common camp site; and here one comes closer to the origin of the word. It can be traced back to Mongolian (through several intermediary languages, probably first Turkish, then Polish) orduwhich means ›Lager, Heerlager, Volksstamm‹ and probably came into German at the time of the Turkish Wars, that is, in the early modern period.

There is no connection whatsoever to the similarly written and sounding verb hoardthat as well as english to hoard (›Pile up, collect, hamster‹) on an Indo-European root (s) keu (›Cover, envelop‹) goes back. (Incidentally, the same root is also found in the German nouns barn, House and trousers basis.) The Hoard (›Schatz, Gold‹, more recently also ›Facility for all-day care of school-age children‹) is originally what is enclosed, hidden, securely stored - not the large amount of something, as one is wrongly associated with horde might assume. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(35) February 4 - Contenance

The German advanced course at the Antonianum grammar school in Vechta has sent in a whole list of words. Amongst other things: Contenance. The high school graduates provide the following explanation: “Keep your composure, even if you studied until midnight, had a party until three or chatted with your friends until five! The expression means something like to keep your composure in a difficult situation and to appear confident with elegance. In addition, you always like to remind your friends that posture is the most important thing and that you have to at least pretend you've slept well. "

As a matter of fact: Contenance Preserving (in German ›composure, attitude‹) is an important skill in all situations. For the professor, among other things, when a colleague from overseas kindly reminds him that the deadline for the contribution to the anthology would have been last month (but he has not yet finished the contribution with the deadline from the month before last), if Another new educational policy initiative comes from Hanover or when the students in the eight o'clock lecture do not pretend to have had a good rest.

Contenance is a word from French, which in turn translates into Latin continentia (›Holding on, self-control, moderation‹) goes back: a derivation from the verb continere (›Hold together, pull yourself together‹). Like many other French words, which the 17th and 18th centuries still scourged as a contribution to the progressive decline in language ("foreign words"), is valid Contenance today as upscale and educational. French was the fashion language back then. Accordingly, we can assume that in three hundred years' time some of the English expressions that many today find annoying will be regarded as valuable. Because then we will probably get most of our foreign words from some other language - Contenance: nobody knows today which it will be.

Incidentally, the German LK of the Vechta Antonianum is one of the winners of the competition for the “Year of Words”: The course has won a Bear German lesson and is visiting the University of Vechta tomorrow. The students already have the right attitude towards their studies (see above). ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(36) February 5 - disgust

Disgust is not a nice thing - but disgust is an interesting word. Strictly speaking, there are two of them: disgust (›Aversion, disgust‹) and the disgust (›Disgusting, unsympathetic person‹). You don't know where it comes from, you can only guess. It may be associated with words like Gothic aiwiski, old English awisc and Greek aischosall of which mean 'shame'; maybe also with Latin aeger (›Sick, disgruntled‹). The Grimm’s dictionary also draws a connection with Middle High German clear (›Against‹) or with tricky (›Picky‹) in consideration. The latter would fit the adjective disgust could not only mean the same as ek (e) lig and disgusting (›Disgusting, disgusting‹), but also ›choosy, peculiar, stubborn‹: if someone disgust is, it means that he does not eat anything. Goethe says of the French writer Alexis Piron (1689–1773) "that he could not satisfy the disgusting public with any of his [...] plays".

The noun disgust not only stands for nauseating disgust (for example in the thriller of the same name - in the English original: Repulsion - by Roman Polanski from 1965), but can also mean something like ›weariness‹: disgust in front of yourself or life.

There is clearly no relationship between disgust and the noun, which is now practically extinct Disgusting name (›Nickname‹), which comes from Low German (Eco name) originates. You can translate it into Old Norse - the 'Ur-Scandinavian' - aukanafn (›Nickname‹) in which auka (›Increase‹) is stuck. The word was also borrowed into English - there it says nickname. The n at the beginning of the word is explained by a shift in the word boundary, namely a wrong replacement of the indefinite article: to ekename became in times when speech was almost only heard through the ear a nickname.

Such attempts to connect incomprehensible words to known ones are called, Folk etymology; also mole and Carnival Monday are examples: The mole don't throw anything with that Mouth, but in the word is the Low German Mul (le) (›Earth, Dust‹), and the Carnival Monday has nothing with Roses to do, but with the verb race (›Be wild, be great‹). Speaking of which Great: also Clumsy no composition is out Great and slap; but that is a different story and will be told another time. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(37) February 6 - mausoleum

When you get to know a new word, you automatically check whether it can be added to words you already know. Funny misunderstandings often arise - for example, when children use the word musketeer (in which the musket, the name of an ancient firearm is stuck) than Muscle animal interpret. It doesn't matter that this doesn't make any obvious sense: words are inexplicable and you don't know why any thing is called one way and no other - that's the normal case. The journalist Axel Hacke has collected such misunderstandings in several books. The story of the child who comes home from school and says: "Mommy, tomorrow we have to get dressed very nicely - the strawberry orchid comes and films us." she had said to the children: "Tomorrow the archbishop will come and firm you."

A similar misunderstanding calls out the word again and again mausoleum suggested by Christine Gröneweg (Cloppenburg). As is well known, it is the name for a monumental tomb in the form of a building. If you ask children why such a thing? mausoleum that is, one often receives the answer that it is with the word mouse Connections: It comes from the fact that the mice gnaw on the old bones in a grave.

Needless to say, the facts may be correct, but the derivation is still wrong. The name is in the mausoleum Mausolus (also Mouse solos, Maussollos or Mausollos written). Its bearer was the governor of the Persian province of Caria. The building was commissioned by his wife and built from 368 to 350 BC. In Halicarnassus (now Bodrum in Turkey). In ancient times it was counted among the seven wonders of the world, including the pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the hanging gardens of the Semiramis in Babylon, the Colossus of Rhodes (a monumental statue of the sun god Helios), the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, the lighthouse on the island of Pharos off Alexandria and the Zeus statue of Phidias in Olympia. Only the pyramids are left of them today.The Mausolos tomb was damaged by an earthquake in the Middle Ages and demolished in the early modern times by the Knights of the Order of St. John, who needed building materials for fortifications.

In the concrete meaning ›tomb of Mausolos‹ is mausoleum known in German since the 16th century; it has been used in the generalized meaning ›magnificent tomb‹ since the 18th century. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(38) February 7th - Deadline

“My favorite words at the moment are among others Deadline and Deadline“, Wrote Ariane Bremer from the University of Vechta at the beginning of October 2013. If you consider that this was not only shortly before the start of the lectures in the winter semester, but that the end of the year was also approaching - for the administration and everyone who has to do with it have, this always means high activity - so one will look around Favorite words be able to confidently think of quotes.

Deadline and Deadline are synonyms, i.e. H. Words with the same meaning. According to the big dictionary, a Deadline a "certain day as an (officially) fixed date that is relevant for (official) measures, especially calculations, surveys, etc.". The reference date among contractual partners used to be the last day of a month: “Payable by the end of the month”, it was then called. Ultimo comes from Latin ultimus (>last<). Even today, in certain situations - e.g. B. when children get on their parents' nerves - hear this word: But now it's the end of the day! (›It'll be over soon, enough soon!‹). Deadline literally means 'line of death' and can, among other things, stand for the blocking line at a guarded border that can be fatal to cross. With the meaning of “deadline” one has to imagine that a matter has to be settled by a certain deadline: After that it is no longer possible, then the matter is 'dead'.

The Deadline on the other hand - an old word: as early as 1373 it was said in a Luebish document, "dat dar eyn stekedach bynomet waart" - is derived from sting in its old meaning 'to aim at something or someone'. The tournaments of the Middle Ages and early modern times, when people galloped towards each other with lances in order to throw each other off their horses, were called Sting or Sting; In the mass jump-offs, in which not individual fighters but whole groups competed against each other, it could happen that you got a fellow combatant let down had to. Are related among others stuck (›Fasten with needles‹), embroider, Sting, thistle (literally ›the stabbing one‹), label (literally: ›the attached or attached‹), ticket (›Badges, tags‹, then ›Entitlement certificate‹), in Low German Stake (›Stake‹, also in English) and that derived from it stalk, lanky, Greek stigma (›Puncture, wound mark‹), stochos (>Aim<), stochasma (›Javelin‹, literally ›that with which one aims at something‹) as well as Stochastics (›Random calculation‹, actually ›Target, guessing art‹).

You could easily write a lot more - but the column has to go to the OV editorial team: deadline. ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(39) February 8 - for bass

A strange word: for bass. The spelling already shows: It is a single word and it is not a noun. Few of them know it nowadays and don't know that it is For the bass, i.e. the deepest male voice or the largest string instrument. After all: The great Duden dictionary knows it and explains it briefly and succinctly as an adverb with the meaning ›further, forward‹.

One can distinguish between a spatial and a temporal variant of meaning. Spatial means for bass ›Forwards, forwards‹: "His heart beat with pleasure, how he drew lonely," says Joseph Viktor von Scheffel. In the temporal sense, the word stands for what is to come: “Yederman would honor me forever” (“Everyone will do me honor in the future”) writes Sebastian Brant in 1512. But it can also emphasize the continuation of something that already exists, as in the Fortunatus novel, published anonymously in 1509: "Darbey let Fortunatus stay there too and doesn't ask for anything" - Fortunatus did not ask any further questions.

Nowadays is for bass, as I said, out of date; at best it can still be used as a joke. We stride vigorously for bass - that sounds somewhat stilted.

But how is the strange word explained? Once again you have to go back deep into the history of the German language to see the connections. For In Middle High German times meant something like 'before' or 'forwards': “I went there for myself in the forest,” wrote Goethe in 1813. At bass it is the old basic form of the adjective that we - apart from the idiom bass amazed - only in the forms of increase better and preferably know. It meant something like 'capable' or 'very' (Ludwig Bechstein: “One evening the Wild and Rhine Counts [...] were sitting together in the hall and drinking deeply”). There bass is no longer in use, one interprets better and preferably today as forms of Well and then speaks of an "irregular" increase.

Interbass originally meant something like ›very, more, further forward (towards)‹. In contrast, the noun is explained quite differently basswhich comes from Latin; bassus in Vulgar Latin means something like 'thick' or 'squat'.

Why use such an ancient expression as for bass should know? Quite simply: it expands the possibilities of expression. Tomorrow is our fortieth column - how boring! No: The "Year of Words" is advancing vigorously for bass! ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(40) February 9 - text

is one of the few German words that make up the letter x exhibit. With a few exceptions (such as witch) they are mostly foreign words. So too with textwhich comes from Latin. It suits him as well as that textiles, the verb texere underlying (›plaiting, weaving, artfully joining together‹): The text is, figuratively speaking, the fabric or web of words.

In contrast to words or sentences, linguistics has not been concerned with texts for very long; text linguistics as a sub-discipline of the subject is not even 40 years old. Nevertheless, amazing things have been achieved during this time: Several hundred (!) Different text definitions are on the market. A somewhat widespread one reads accordingly: Texts are self-contained (complete as linguistic actions) linguistic utterances that are formed from several meaningfully linked words. They usually consist of several sentences, but do not necessarily have to consist of a single grammatically complete sentence. If you read “Do not enter” on a sign, it is a text in the full sense of the word.

This is not the first time that we come across the phenomenon of homonymy in this column: two different words are spoken and / or spelled the same. This is also with text the case. Not only a sequence of words can be meant, but also - in the technical language of printing - a font size of 20 points. Incidentally, it is not in this meaning the text, rather the text: It is probably a short form of Text font (›Font for special texts‹).

text as a masculine comes in a number of compositions (Text book, Text interpretation, Highlighter, Word processing ...) and also in some derivatives like textually, Copywriter or text in front. The latter means ›writing advertising or hit texts‹; in English has to text also the meaning ›write an SMS‹. And if someone verbally produces a lot of text, that is, speaks constantly and insistently to someone, persuades them, this is called casually: full text someone or to text. In order to avoid this effect here as much as possible, it is over now text. Up soon! ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(41) February 10th - snuggly

The word of the day, snuggly, "A word from my childhood that is now used less, which is especially difficult to explain to a foreigner," said Dr. Sigrid Heising suggested.

It follows a very common pattern in the formation of words in German: It is by adding the suffix (= the "final syllable") -ig from the noun Fool originated. Such an adjective, generally speaking, indicates a salient characteristic of the size mentioned in the noun. Such derivations, as they are called in grammar, are legion, but occasionally only to be enjoyed with caution: the adjective funny for example, it only appears to be related to the noun Lust together - someone who feels like is not necessarily also funny, and not everyone who funny is, also has Lust. As one can easily imagine, such apparently transparent formations represent a learning and understanding problem for people who are not yet very familiar with German.

At snuggly but the connection is obvious. It is also expressed in the dictionary definition: ›behaving like a snitch‹ (“colloquially derogatory”). But if you don't know what a Fool is - so it may happen to the foreigner who was mentioned in the opening quotation - has to ask or suggest further and learns in the Duden universal dictionary that with it (also "colloquially disparaging") a ›young man whose behavior is naughty, naughty "Is felt arrogant" is meant. This actually clarifies the question of meaning and style, but some people, for example the readers of this column, want to look behind the scenes and learn something about the origin and history of the words. The Duden universal dictionary is now closed Fool to read that the word came from Low German into High or Standard German and that it is “probably related to Low German snot = Nasenschleim, Schnodder "is - emphasis on" well ", that is, the etymology is not certain. But who at Nasal mucus the coarser variant snot thinks associated with the Fool soon the Snot boy, the Snot boy, the Snot nosewho are all snotty behave, and is inclined to accept the derivation (the derivation brash of Schnodder is something else, by the way, namely ›provocatively casual, grandiose, missing the due respect‹).

In times of (linguistic) political correctness, it is not surprising that next to the masculine male Fool the feminine feminine Schnöselin is asked, for example in the spelling dictionary. He turns against his universal brother, who as Fool yes only knows young men. However, equality is not fully enforced: As far as adjectives are concerned, it stays the same snuggly, An entry snobbish is not scheduled. ⋄ Wilfried Kürschner

(42) February 11th - obscene

There is a difference between words and things, that is, the objects that words stand for. What is longer cow or earthworm? – earthworm of course: the word consists of three syllables and nine letters; cow has only one syllable or three letters. (As a real object, a cow is of course longer than an earthworm.)

The distinction between word and thing is very important for linguistics. Not least when it comes to so-called indecent words. They stand for unsightly, unpleasant, possibly also morally reprehensible objects or facts, but can still be interesting as words. For this very reason, swear words and foul expressions are also in dictionaries (at least in the better ones). Jacob Grimm chalked up his lexicographical predecessor Adelung for denying the “profession of a linguist” with the statement “These words are so low that they hardly deserve to be mentioned”. “Nature,” says Grimm, “has commanded man to hide the business of procreation as well as emptying from others and to cover the parts that do it; what offends this inner discipline and shyness is called indecent (obscoenum [...]). But what you avoid in front of the crowd, you will spare their ears and not speak. "

However, Grimm does not spare the “ear of the crowd” the words themselves, only their explanations: the German dictionary explains indecent words in Latin. Under Pants sigh For example, the explanation is very short: "crepitus ventris": Those who are educated enough to understand this, according to the calculation, can also be expected to know a crude word - they will still avoid it.

The word obscene, suggested by Oliver Middelbeck, comes from the Latin caenum (›Dirt, Unflat‹); It characterizes everything that causes unpleasant sensory perceptions (for example, a bad smell), then everything that hurts the feeling of shame: a obscene joke, a obscene photo, a obscene novel. In the strict sense of obscene it is about the sexual and / or the fecal area; but in a broader sense it can also be used - just like the German equivalent indecent - Use in contexts in which one can take offense for other reasons: "The store has obscene prices."

In Grimm’s dictionary is obscene Incidentally, not listed. Not because it stands for something indecent, but because the word it aroused offense: At the time, foreign words were found obscene ... ⋄ Jochen A. Bär

(43) February 12 - apart

A special word: apart. It means 'special' and comes from French: à part There it means precisely this: ›special‹, also ›aside‹, ›peculiar‹ and ›attractive‹ - meanings that the word also has in German or at least once had.

The French à part comes from Latin pars (>Part<); that this word is also a t contains, can be recognized by the so-called oblique case, i.e. in all forms except the nominative singular: In the genitive singular it is for example partis, in the nominative plural partes