When were Oreos invented
How the oreo was invented
In 1890 a group of eight New York City large bakeries combined to form the New York Biscuit Company and built a huge six story factory in West Chelsea. Eight years later, it merged with its competitor, Chicago's American Biscuit and Manufacturing, to form an even larger conglomerate - National Biscuit Company, but the factory and headquarters remained in Chelsea. In 1901 the National Biscuit Company put their company abbreviated name on a wafer box for the first time - Nabisco. Nabisco soon to be the official company name.
On April 2, 1912, the National Biscuit Company announced to its sales team that they were introducing the three "highest class biscuits," in a grouping they called the "Trio". Two of the cookies, the Mother Goose Biscuit and Veronese Biscuit, didn't sell particularly well and quickly disappeared from the shelves. The third one that has oreo biscuit. "Two beautifully embossed chocolate-flavored wafers with a rich cream filling," the oreo biscuit in a yellow tin with a glass lid sold for about 30 cents a pound (about $ 7.13 today). While it was national in April, it was just under a month ago that the National Biscuit Company first registered the product with the US Patent and Trademark Office (registration number 0093009). It is often said that the date of registration indicated was March 6th, which is why Oreo is a national holiday. However, looking for a simple patent and trademark showing that the date is repeated many times is wrong. In fact, it was actually filed on March 14, 1912, and registered on August 12, 1913.
How did you come up with the idea of the Oreo? Using time-honored business practice, steal the idea from a competitor and then marketing it is better than the original. You see, there was another popular cream filled double biscuit that came before Oreo, made from sunshine biscuits. Sunshine Biscuits was a company run by Joseph and Jacob Loose and John H. Wiles, the former, of whom were originally part of the Great Bakery Conglomerate of 1898 (the one that formed the National Biscuit Company).
Wanting a more personal approach to baking and didn't want to lose in the bakery conglomerate loosely liquidated its fortune and helped shape sunshine biscuits. (The company was actually the third largest cookie baker in the US when it was acquired by Keebler in 1996. To this day, the Sunshine brand still seems to be on Cheez, among other things.)
In any case, in 1908, four years before the Oreo, Sunshine the upscale and soon hugely popular, Hydrox Sponge Cake, Oreo was a pretty blatant rip off of the cream filling, embossing and all. Of course, Nabisco denies this is where the idea for the Oreo came from, but otherwise the evidence at hand shows it strongly.
Like the name, there has never been a firm answer for the National Biscuit Company as to why "Oreo" While there are several theories. There is speculation that "Oreo" derives from the French word for gold - "or", since the original packaging was gold and the item was supposed to be a "high class" pastry shop. It could also come from the Greek word for mountain or hill - "Oros," since an oreo is a "mountain" of a cookie. It has also been speculated that perhaps it was named after the cookie itself, two "O" shape cookies sandwiching the cream, O- Creat the-O.
The identity of the designer behind the distinctive embossing on the top of each cookie - or whatever the embossing means - has also become part of the Oreo secret. The first draft was simple enough - with the name "Oreo" and a wreath on the edge. In 1924, the company expanded the original design to tweak with a 1921 name - going from "oreo biscuit" to "oreo sandwich." The 1924 design added a ring of laurels and two lovebirds. Twenty years later, 1952 is when the elaborate, beautiful, design of today first appeared.
But what does the design mean, if anything? Historians believe that the circle around the word "Oreo" encased with an antenna-type symbol on top was an early European symbol of quality. Cookie rumored to believe that the antenna symbol actually identified a Lorraine cross, an icon with the famous Knights Templar. The "four - leaf clover" that surround the name could be just that or it could be the cross law firm - a geometric pattern of four triangles that radiates outward that is also associated with the Knights Templar and Freemasons. It's what they want to believe for the individual, but this author thinks the Oreo Cookie a delicious Da Vinci Code-style map leads to a treasure buried a thousand years ago ... Or as I call it, that probably was based on national treasure 3.
Well, who designed the embossing? Evidence points to William Tournament. However, while Nabisco admits that a man named William Tournament worked for them for fifty years, they deny that he developed the 1954 design. That is, show his son and drawn proof otherwise. Tournament joined the company in 1923, working in the post office. Eventually he worked his way up to the engineering department, helping to make the dies, which, as it were, made the cookies, the industrial-sized cookie cutters.
Where is the evidence? In the house of Bill Tournament, Wilhelm's son, perched on a wall is a framed 1952, line-drawn draft of the modern Oreo design. (If you're curious why blueprints are blue) Under the blueprint, it is written, "Drawn by W.A. Tournament 7/17:52," two years before the design on the Oreos would be sold in stores. Despite this evidence, the Kraft (whom now Nabisco) Corporate Archives only says that station wagon "designer" and a proposal award he received in 1972 for an idea "that increases the production of Nilla wafers on company machines by 13 percent." So can Bill shed some light on what his father was thinking when he seems to have drawn the design? Not really, but he will admit that the design, while beautiful and similar mysterious symbols, arguably had nothing to do with the Knights Templar. His father wasn't a bricklayer either.
For the stuff between the elaborately designed cookies the filling-it partly lard - pork fat - until 1997 sat out. In 1994, Nabisco began a nearly three-year upgrade process for taking out the bacon filling. This was directed by Nabisco's senior scientist Sam Porcello, known as "Mr Oreo." At this point, Porcello already held a cookie legend, five Oreo-related patents, including Oreo biscuits encased in white and dark chocolate. By December 1997, the Oreo Cookie was lard-free, but there was another problem- lard had been replaced with partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; Yes, trans fat is not at all good for you. As the Chicago Tribune put it, "Later research showed that trans fat was worse for the heart than lard." Finally, in January 2006, healthier (and more expensive) unhydrogenated vegetable oil in Oreos was taken instead. Today's filing is additionally made with lots of sugar and vanilla extract to create a cookie that is still tasty but slightly better for you. Or maybe more aptly, less bad for you.
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- Bill also says that his father created, or tweaked, other well-known Nabisco designs in his half century with the company, including changes to the Nutter Butter, Ritz Crackers, and a dog's favorite treat, the Milkbone.
- The basic oreo cookie is 71 percent cookie, 29 percent cream fill.
Melissa writes for the popular Interesting Fact website TodayIFoundOut.com. Subscribe today I found from the "Daily Know" newsletter, click here or like it on Facebookk here. You can also check them out on YouTube here.
This post has been republished with the kind permission of TodayIFoundOut.com. Image by Rob Boudon under a Creative Commons license.
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