Can Buddhism and Nihilism coexist?
The philosophy of the Kyôto school
Subtitle: The absolute nothing and love
(Hans-Peter Kolb, Hanover)
Summary of the manuscript
- Target group: Everyone who is also interested in Eastern philosophy. Previous philosophical knowledge is useful, but not necessary, while reading "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" is important because I refer to some of the thought processes detailed there.
- Learning goals: Get to know the similarities and differences between Eastern (especially Japanese Buddhist) and Western thinking
- Are co-authors currently desired? Please only write any changes to the content on the discussion page, I will add them to the appropriate place!
- Subject description: See foreword, in particular an attempt is made to establish a relationship between the Eastern concept of absolute nothingness and the concept of love (see subtitle: Absolute nothingness and love)
- Structure of the manuscript: See preface. In the structure I stick to the book by listed in the literature list Ohashi (2011)
- 1Kitarô Nishida: contradicting unity, expression and absolute nothingness, and how love is the basis of everything
- 2Hajime Tanabe: Logic of Species, Tat-als-Wende and Absolute Dialectic, and how this becomes the psycho-logic of love
- 3Shin-ichi Hisamatsu: The philosophy of awakening to the shapeless self returning to a living, real world
- 4Keiji Nishitani: Infinite horror, infinite beauty, emptiness and heart-inspired "madness"
- 5Iwao Kôyama: Correspondence Identity and Logic of Place
- 6Masaaki Kôsaka: encounter and run as events on the "path"
- 7Toratarô Shimomura: Japanese and Western ways of thinking
- 8Shigetaka Suzuki: European World History and Thought
- 9Yoshinori Takeuchi: The Buddha's silence as an invitation to love
- 10Kôichi Tsujimura: Truth in Heidegger and in Zen, as well as the possible approach to love through art
- 11 Shizuteru Ueda: Absolute Nothing and Occidental Philosophy
- 12Art as an instruction or recommendation using the example of the joint
- 13 Tables and Diagrams
- 14 Bibliography
The present work aims to build a bridge from Heidegger's philosophy, especially the approach developed in “Being and Time” (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006), as it was further developed by me (here in the Philosophy Department: Thoughts on “Being and time "), and the Japanese philosophy of the Kyôto school (Ohashi, 2011) in order to enrich both philosophical points of view. The interesting thing about it, I find, is that although the one philosophy arose on the background of Christian-occidental culture and the other in the context of Buddhism, both philosophical approaches can be combined through the love that I put in “thoughts on "Being and Time" (The Development Process of Love) ”(here in the Philosophy Department) as a genuine and immediate understanding of Dasein in its for what sake. Instead of “building a bridge”, I should say “building the bridge further”, since the bridge was built by the Japanese philosophers of the Kyôto school for about a hundred years when they dealt with European philosophy, especially with Hegel and Kierkegaard , Nietzsche and Heidegger.
The basic concept of the Kyôto school is "absolute nothing" (zettai mu), which is often associated with the Buddhist term nirvana, so that the corresponding philosophy is also referred to as the philosophy of religion. But, Ohashi writes on page 24, “the idea of absolute nothing [is] more atheistic. Because it has nothing to do with the sacred and to that extent is not religious in the ordinary sense ”(Ohashi, 2011). In addition to Buddhism, however, something typical of Japanese culture, which can be characterized as collectivistic and non-individualistic, also plays an important role, as discussed in “Buddhism and Christianity” (Brück & Lai, 1997) on page 182: Yes Language expresses a non-dualistic basic attitude, opposites are seen as polarities that align on a higher level or in practice. Hence “the Japanese reluctance to make definitive dogmatic statements about the absolute” (ibid) and the lack of understanding of absolute historical truths that no longer reveal their timeless significance. The reason for this lies not only in an epistemologically founded mistrust of each concept, whether something is really understood or just more veiled, but also in the other social function of languagewhich primarily serves the sense of community and therefore does not define it, but rather describes sensations. That is why Heidegger has had such a big response in Japan because he does not define, but shows. Opinions in Japan are not individualistic demarcations from others, but the result of finding a consensus. When the philosophers of the Kyôto School had found the idea of nothing while studying Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Heidegger, something mediating between East and West was found, an important pillar for a common opinion, which absolutely corresponded to the Japanese mentality. When the nationalists in Japan wanted to turn it into a "Japanese philosophy", Nishida, for example, resisted fiercely. In contrast to Western nihilism, absolute nothing means something that we in principle cannot understand or put into words because it is an activity or something purely process-like without substance, immediate and real, whereby "immediate and real" is not conceptual, but is meant as an instruction or recommendation (for more details, see Chapter 10).
In the first chapter I discuss the philosophy of Nishida, which is presented in two essays in the book by Ryôsuke Ohashi (Ohashi, 2011). Based on Hegel's dialectic, in the first essay (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011), Nishida conceives beings and the world as contradicting themselves, citing several opposites. Based on the Fonagy et al. The levels of development described (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008) I have arranged the contradictions or opposites of Nishida and brought them into a developmental psychological order, whereby finally five fundamental opposites have emerged that build on one another in that their contradictions only up to must be overcome to a certain extent before the next opposition can be experienced, which includes the previous one. The last contrast, the spatio-temporal contrast, makes it clear that all being is expressive and therefore communal. When this contradiction is completely overcome, love and fulfillment are reached in human life, the being of Dasein has nothing to express, so that the relationship of Dasein to being in general, i.e. its human life, the true relationship to being (self-being) and to nothing (not-being-self) and thus connects both as mediation. In contrast to Nishida, for me the oscillating development towards love and fulfillment and the invitation inherent in existence itself not to surrender to its inadequacies and the contradictions of being-in-the-world, the substrate or the basis of absolute nothingness, which in Nishida is simply defined as the mediation between being and nothing based on pure experience. This formal definition, even if it was later filled with more content by Nishida, was decisively criticized by Tanabe, because as the basis of the philosophical system of Nishida it is already being, namely something substantial, and no longer nothing (insubstantial). In the second essay, Nishida analyzes the phenomenon of art, seeing art and science as the two poles of human creativity. As an extension of Nishida, I have analyzed both with regard to the five fundamental contradictions and, albeit in a somewhat different way, come through a corresponding analysis of the bodily senses, whereby there is also a parallel to the five fundamental contradictions, to overcome the contradiction bodily -spiritual. In addition to the fact that existence is always both being-in-the-world and being-in-the-community, the two poles of art and science are connected and the opposition between transcendence and immanence can be overcome.
Tanabe's logic of species is also dialectic, but here Tanabe tries to strike a middle path between idealistic and materialistic dialectics. The practical impetus at that time was a political one, Tanabe wanted Japan to develop neither nationalism nor communism at this time before the Second World War and thus stay out of all armed conflicts. In doing so, he radicalized Hegel's dialectic to absolute dialectic as the logic of species with an emphasis on self-alienation and the deed-as-turning point. In his opinion, the dialectic has to do without an eternal system, as Nishida did with his introduction of the absolute nothing as “pure experience”, and hold on to the standpoint of mediation through action, because an experience only comes about when you yourself deals with the result of the deed. In this respect there is no such thing as “pure experience”. Incidentally, this corresponds to Heidegger's criticism of Husserl's epoché. What I miss with Tanabe, however, is the emotional level or the state of mind, as Heidegger calls it. In the schema of the individual-species-genus, which in Hegel corresponds to the schema of the individual-particular-general, for Tanabe the individual is the spiritual subject. I have added to this insofar as the individual in its dual character is also an object of the psyche, whereby the psyche determines the state of being. While Heidegger was still concerned with the essence of being-in-the-world, I divided it up into emotion and expectation and supplemented it with deception (here in the Philosophy Department: Thoughts on "Being and Time"), and this corresponds to the three moments of psyche, spirit and matter of absolute negation. The essence of being-in-the-world is thus absolute negation. As I will show, the individual as an object of the psyche follows the feminine principle, while as a spiritual subject he wants to control the mind and thus realize the masculine principle. If this opposition is not overcome, evil can arise again and again, but love is achieved in overcoming, whereby the deed-as-turning point is decisive in each case. Without matter, the self-alienation of love, there is neither good nor bad. Finally I show that love mediates itself in its trinity of psyche, spirit and matter. From this I developed the psychology of love and emphasized the dual character of existence both as an individual and as a species, as well as as a genus as an object of psyche, spirit or matter and as a spiritual, material or psychic subject. Tanabe's second essay is about art and religion, both of which are equally opposed to each other. They are opposed and yet united as complements with the same goal, love, whereby art, in my opinion, conveys more about the psyche, about the dynamics of love, and religion more about the spirit, about the aspect of returning to the absolute, which conveys love .
Hisamatsu is less of a philosopher and more of a Zen master, i.e. a religious practitioner, so in this section I also touched on the controversial relationship between (Zen) awakening and the true self as well as topics of the interreligious dialogue between Buddhism and Christianity. Furthermore, I analyzed the awakening to the original or true self described by Hisamatsu with the help of the psychology of love, which I developed in the previous chapter based on Tanabe's logic of species.
Nishitani uses a Zen story to illuminate the nature of the encounter as well as the phenomena of true equality and true freedom, the superposition of which is based on emptiness, as he calls absolute nothing. In a second essay by Nishitani, the poet Bashô explains how someone can live in "madness" and thereby be enlightened and yet be in this world or "live nowhere in equilibrium" (Nishitani, Die "Madness" with the poet Bashô, 2011). For me the paradox of this madness is a “holy” enthusiasm that remains anchored in everyday life. Instead of Plato's doctrine of two worlds, this can be better demonstrated through the absolute dialectic of psyche, spirit and matter.
Kôyama starts from the concept of correspondence, which in my opinion stems from the Buddhist assumption of the interconnectedness of everything, and comes from there to the local logic of correspondence identity with the moments task, ideal and solution as a framework in which being becomes understandable while Heidegger starts from the concept of care - in my opinion the equivalent of correspondence connected with Christian Caritas - and arrives at temporality with the ecstases of past, future and present, in which the being of Dasein becomes understandable. In my opinion, Heidegger has actually forgotten the spatiality that is contained in the logic of location alongside temporality. For me (Kolb, 2011) processuality with its ecstasies of origin, future, arrival and information is the meaning of being, i.e. the framework in which being becomes understandable, where origin corresponds to what was, arrival to the present and information corresponds to spatiality. In my opinion, Kôyama does not explicitly list what is, in my opinion, the essential element of information, but in contrast to Heidegger it has not been omitted, but rather contained in the logic of the location: task, ideal and solution are each origin providing information, the future requesting information and arrival producing information. The here-and-now is then the arrival in the information and the information in the arrival, each held in the origin providing information and the future requiring information. The location logic provides the appropriate information about its appropriateness via the space. I have therefore also called the procedural nature of information logic.
Kôsaka goes one step further by placing the path at the center of his considerations. The properties of the concept of path listed by him can be related to the five pairs of opposites from Chapter 1 and the two main phenomena he mentioned, encounter and run with spatiality and temporality, so that I was able to interpret his concept of the path as a development process. Finally, Kôsaka contrasts the concept of way with the concept of logos and compares Eastern and Western philosophy. This discussion will be continued in the next chapter, whereby I reduced the differences between the Western and the Japanese way of thinking to the contrast between space and time: Thinking is always based on a kind of abstraction in which at least one aspect is switched off and Japanese thinking switches on time out, western thinking space. This means that Japanese culture is social-collectivistic and western technical-individualistic, in the Japanese world the way of being is very flexible, while the way of acting is strictly regulated so as not to disturb the communal harmony, while in the west the way of being is defined as an individual and the Freedom of action is largely guaranteed.
In the next chapter, by continuing Shigetaka Suzuki's thoughts on European history, I show how individualistic and collectivistic thinking have alternated in our culture, with the two main currents of thought, Greek thought and Christianity, playing an important role to have. In addition, the respective way of thinking was always reflected in political action.
Using the example of Takeuchi's lecture on a religious-philosophical problem of Buddhism, I show how far Buddhist philosophy has gone with the development theory of Fonagy et al. agrees, and that the biblical story of the Fall goes well with the Buddhist doctrine of dependent arising.
Tsujimura then investigates the question of what the similarities and differences between Heidegger's concept of truth and Zen are. Here, the different use of language in Eastern and Western cultures becomes clear once again: while we try to grasp truth linguistically, at least in Japanese culture, language serves to give instructions and recommendations for action through which everyone can come to its own truth.
Ueda finally depicts the absolute nothingness on the basis of the Zen story of the ox and the shepherd in its many facets, and compares it with the two occidental ways of thinking of Meister Eckhart and Nietzsche, whereby for him the nothingness of Eckhart is absolute but still positive, while Nietzsche's nothing is so negative that it remains at least unclear for Ueda how he can get out of this nothing. As far as Nietzsche is concerned, I am of the same opinion, for me Nietzsche did not completely overcome the trauma of his youth, but if I only refer to his recommendations for action with Meister Eckhart, then I find that by piercing the soul orAt the same time, Gottesgrundes recommends killing God, even if he never expressed it in such extreme terms as Nietzsche did.
Finally, I will once again present my own reflections on the art of the fugue, which relate to the preceding and show to what extent this art form can contribute to our developing more and more in the direction of love.
Kitarô Nishida: contradicting unity, expression and absolute nothingness, and how love is the basis of everything
In the first essay by Kitarô Nishida (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011) from the book on the Kyôto School (Ohashi, 2011), what Nishida calls self-identity or continuity corresponds to my processuality (Kolb, 2011) , namely that a being changes and yet remains itself. Existential beings are process-like or self-identical out of themselves, while non-existential beings can only “get” their processuality or continuity through existence (ibid.). If something has changed, it is no longer the same, but how can it still be the same? In this case, "the same" is the self and something general, while the same is something individual. If Dasein is actually and thus self-determined, then it is determined in every moment by itself and not by the world, that is the paraphrase of “actually” as a term from Heidegger (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006) in the terminology of Nishida. In this sense, the individual (the same thing, the existence in a certain moment in a certain place) is completely individual, and the self, the general, determines and encloses the individual and mediates or connects the individual, is therefore in this sense entirely general. In this respect, existence, if it really is, is "identical to itself as a real self-identity of something absolutely contradicting one another, i.e. as a real contradicting unity" (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 57). The self is therefore not to be understood as a substance, but in its mediation the individual, i.e. the existence in a certain moment in a certain place, is an ever new event of the creative self-creation (Ohashi, 2011, p. 271).
The easiest way to recognize that two beings are the same, but not the same, is when both are spatially together, such as the two proverbial eggs when they are next to each other. That two unequal beings are the same, such as a caterpillar and a butterfly, can only be recognized most reliably by observing the caterpillar continuously until it has transformed into a butterfly. In these two cases the different beings have been determined by an outside observer to be equal, unequal or identical. But how is the whole thing with existential beings and how does it learn to determine its identity or its self independently? According to Fonagy (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 212), five levels of development can be identified, the development of which is primarily supported by the mother by marking the corresponding modes of her child's state of mind and reflecting on him in this way it helps to regulate the corresponding affects so that it can then process them accordingly, understand them and grasp connections. Specifically, there are the following levels of the self that the child originally reveals through his or her state of mind, whereby existence can develop on each level up to its death, but the levels build on one another insofar as a certain degree of maturity is only reached on one level must be before existence can begin developing on the next level.
First, the child experiences himself as an actor who uses physical strength to bring about changes in the surrounding environment. In his worldview or his worldliness, as Heidegger calls it (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006, p. 86), the world consists of nothing but beings that are only identified or determined from outside, it is a concept of the world, in which being is only objective, ie general, and which Nishida calls the “physical world” or “world of negation” (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 70). In the sense that being does not determine itself, it denies itself. This physical level of development of the child or of existence is characterized on the one hand by the experience of its own physique, the individual growth, i.e. initially above all the development of physical strength and skill, and on the other hand by a naive idea of the world as one in which it participates everything that exists that doesn't mind anything, can play as the mood takes you. Time also plays no role in this worldliness of the child, neither when nor for how long it interacts with the various beings in the world. The child's own body does not seem to play a special role either when the child goes back to this level while learning to walk and tries and practices to walk again and again without paying much attention to time and physical pain. His state of mind, when it causes something, is enjoyment of one's own physique, i.e. development (actual mode of the state of mind, see “Thoughts on" Being and Time "” (Kolb, 2011)), or enjoyment of the merely objective world with which it can do anything (improper mode of this state of mind; ibid). People still feel this joy or fun into old age, when they have brought about changes in their environment with strength and / or skill, for example in sports or games, which is why animation is so important in tourism, for example , whereby it is more about the improper mood mode of fun and less about actual joy. In that the mother understands her child as genuinely and directly as possible, i.e. comes as close as possible to the ideal of loving (ibid), she supports her child through marked (imitating) affect reflection (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 199 ) and sometimes humorous demonstrations of possible solutions (Kolb, 2011) when regulating the corresponding arousal, so that the child can process its state of mind (if it is too aroused, no processing can take place) and first its mother and then itself on this level more and more real and immediate currently understand, so can love more and more. In this way it can learn more and more to appreciate the fact that it continues to develop out of itself. It is thus revealed to him that his-being-in-the-world includes his own stature (physique), i.e. his own development process, even if he has not yet understood this, and he is thus increasingly able to use this aspect of his Understanding one's being real and immediate, that is, one's relationship to one's being becomes more and more loving in this respect. Viewed in this way, existence on this level of development understands the contrast or contradiction between active and passive or between powerful-dynamic and static-motionless, i.e. between affirmation and negation, better and better, that is, more and more real and immediate, so that ideally it is with love even overcomes. All living beings develop on this level, but with more primitive forms of life there is no contradiction between active and passive in their relationship to their being, so that their own development process is not revealed to them. So they cannot appreciate him and also cannot overcome this contradiction.
Over time, the child realizes through an ever more genuine and immediate understanding of his or her feelings of joy or fun, that the world is not just made up of pure, constant and therefore timeless objects, because he or she also has fun through his counterpart at one time or another becomes corrupted, and thus reaches the next level of development. On this, the child experiences that there are beings through which the child can be influenced in his state of mind, so that he can no longer feel any joy or fun. The world no longer appears to him as “a merely general, merely objective world” (Nishida, Selbstidentität und Kontinuität der Welt, 2011, p. 70), in which everything that exists denies itself in this sense, so that it can do what it does with it wants, but it recognizes in the world a certain self-determination and a peculiarity of time, for example that it does something at some times and then its condition is influenced in a certain way by certain other beings, which then do not deny themselves but affirm them and at times in a different way or not at all. His mother, for example, is once good and once bad. As a parallel to the fact that in Fonagy (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 212) this level of development is referred to as social, I want to refer to the corresponding worldview or the corresponding worldliness as social, although it is still between the physical and the “biological world” of Nishida (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 70). For the child, the process of mediation between the good and the bad mother, for example, is incomprehensible; it does not know what it was that caused the change in the mother. The whole of temporality does not reveal itself to existence, but gradually only the past (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006) or the origin (Kolb, 2011), initially as an unsolved problem. In the child's worldliness, there is initially no inner mediation between what has been and what is in the present situation, the self-affirmation of beings is not yet a creative act for the child, the good and bad mother are not yet the same being in the child Worldliness of the child. The same applies to the child himself, who also experiences himself e.g. once as happy and once as listless. In these cases, Dasein feels confronted with an insoluble problem and its state of mind is therefore anger about it, in this arbitrary and thus seemingly unjust world, which is not merely objective and in which it does not know what it can do in it without negative consequences to have been thrown (actual mode of feeling) or anger about a negative influence that has occurred, i.e. damage that has been felt as unjust (improper mode of this feeling). People feel this anger or rage into old age when they are faced with an unsolvable task. By understanding her child as genuinely and directly as possible, i.e. getting as close as possible to the ideal of loving, the mother supports her child with marked affect reflection and sometimes humorous demonstrations of possible solutions in regulating the corresponding arousal, so that the child can process his or her state of mind first Understand his mother and then himself on this level more and more genuinely and more directly, i.e. love more and more and understand the corresponding relationships. In this way he can learn more and more that his-being-in-the-world also includes being-conditioned, and that it gradually knows to appreciate that through self-determination from other existential beings it also receives positive suggestions that increase its joy can. It is thus revealed to him, even if he has not yet understood that, that other existential beings have created something that is now available to him and from which he can now benefit, and he is thus increasingly enabled to use this aspect of his Understanding one's being, and especially that of one's unavailable individuality, genuinely and directly, that is, one's relationship to one's being becomes more and more loving in this respect. Seen in this way, existence on this level of development understands the contradiction or contradiction between objective and subjective better and better, i.e. always more real and more immediate, so that in the ideal case it even overcomes it with love. At least plants and animals, for example in a biotope, also develop on this level, but not all of them have a contradiction between objective and subjective in their relationship to their being, so that their own conditionedness and individuality are not revealed to them. Thus they cannot appreciate what is given to them and neither can they overcome the contradiction between objective and subjective.
Over time, the child's increasingly well-understood state of anger or rage reveals that there are certain connections between what has been and what is present in his situation. It recognizes that there is a certain mediation here, as Nishida (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011) would express, which it can initially influence with itself and gradually with others, and thus achieves that next level of development. On this the child experiences that actions lead to certain results, from which the child can distinguish the actions. The world no longer appears to him as a partly objective, partly arbitrarily subjective world, in which some beings in this sense, incomprehensibly, sometimes affirms and sometimes denies each other, so that they are repeatedly faced with unsolvable problems and angry about them (actual mode) or is angry (improper mode), but it recognizes in the world a certain directionality and a further peculiarity of time, namely that with certain actions with a certain continuity something certain can happen in the future. However, discontinuities also occur again and again, so that the child's activities surprisingly do not lead to the result he expected. As a parallel to the fact that Fonagy (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 212) describes this level of development as teleological, I want to call the corresponding worldview or worldliness teleological, which is also between the physical and the "biological world" of Nishida. For the child, the process of mediating between action and consequence is not yet fully understandable; at the beginning, it is far too little able to assess the risks of a course of action. The whole of temporality is not revealed to existence, but only the future as a further temporal moment, i.e. what can still await existence, and that as an uncertain risk. In the child's worldliness there is still no measurable inner mediation between beings in the present situation and beings, which can still come from the future, the self-affirmation of beings is still not a creative act for the child, the good and the bad mother that may come to the child in the future are not yet the same being in the child's worldliness. The same also applies to the child himself, who can also experience himself in the future, for example, once joyful, once listless or angry. In these cases, Dasein feels itself to be faced with an incalculable risk, and its condition is therefore fear of the uncertainty of its being-in-the-world (actual mode of condition) or fear of something certain threatening that may come its way (less real Mode of this state of mind). People feel this fear or fear well into old age, when they are faced with a risk that they cannot assess. By understanding her child as genuinely and directly as possible, i.e. getting as close as possible to the ideal of loving, the mother supports her child with marked affect reflection and sometimes humorous demonstrations of possible solutions in regulating the corresponding arousal, so that the child can process his or her state of mind first to understand his mother and then himself on this level more and more genuinely and more directly, i.e. to love more and more. In this way, they can learn more and more that their being-in-the-world also includes the possibility of being able to be or letting go, and they can appreciate that unforeseen events give them new opportunities to develop further and learn, Accepting limits. It is thus revealed to him, even if he has not yet understood that, in death he has to let go of everything that he has received up to then and has not yet let go, and he is thus increasingly enabled to understand this aspect of his being and especially to understand his mortality genuinely and directly, that is, his relationship to his being becomes more and more loving in this regard. Seen in this way, existence on this level of development understands the contrast or contradiction between continuous and discontinuous better and better, i.e. more and more real and more immediate, so that in the ideal case it even overcomes it with love. At least animals and many plants also develop on this level, but only with more highly developed animals is there a contradiction between continuous and discontinuous in their relationship to their being, so that all others are not able to be able to be or let go and their mortality is not revealed. Thus they cannot appreciate anything at this level and also cannot overcome the corresponding contradiction.
Over time, the child's increasingly well-understood state of fear or fear reveals that certain connections exist between the future and his present situation.It recognizes that there is a certain mediation here, as Nishida would put it, which it can first influence itself better and gradually with others, and thus reaches the next level of development. On this, the child experiences that actions by others and also by himself are repeated in certain situations under certain circumstances, it receives signals from others that they are pursuing plans and intentions, and also does this themselves, so that certain processes are no longer linear but rather are circular. The world no longer appears to him only as an objective as well as subjective and both continuous and discontinuous world, so that he is repeatedly confronted with unsolvable problems and is angry (actual mode) or angry (improper mode) about them and accordingly not confronts assessable risks and is therefore anxious (actual mode) or fearful (improper mode), but recognizes that some actions in the world are "based on previous intentional mental states, for example wishes" (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 212), and another peculiarity of time that there are both linear and circular processes. As a parallel to the fact that in Fonagy (ibid.) This level of development is referred to as intentional, I want to denote the corresponding worldview or the corresponding worldliness as intentional, and this corresponds to the “biological world” of Nishida. For the child, the process of mediation between his or her previous intentional mental state and the state of the fulfilled intentions is not yet clearly comprehensible; at the beginning, it repeatedly experiences itself as separate from the fulfillment of its intentions. Dasein thus reveals the entire temporality of past or origin (past damage), future (threats) and present or arrival (separation, absence). In the worldliness of the child there is already a certain inner mediation between beings in different situations, the self-affirmation and self-determination of beings is already a certain creative act for the child, the good and the bad mother who meet or can meet the child in time , are already the same beings in the child's worldliness, but not yet recognized as being-like and thus differentiated from an animal. The same also applies to the child himself, who can experience himself as shaping, but also not yet as being and differentiated from an animal. Incidentally, many more highly developed animals can also reach this level of development. If Dasein experiences itself as separate from the fulfillment of its intentions, then its condition is suffering because of the unfulfillment of its being-in-the-world (actual mode of this condition) or grief over the separation from certain intended situations (improper mode of this condition) . People still feel this suffering or grief into old age, when they experience themselves as separate from fulfillment. By understanding her child as genuinely and directly as possible, i.e. getting as close as possible to the ideal of loving, the mother supports her child with marked affect reflection and sometimes humorous demonstrations of possible solutions in regulating the corresponding arousal, so that the child can process his or her state of mind first to understand his mother and then himself on this level more and more genuinely and more directly, i.e. to love more and more. In this way they can learn more and more that their being-in-the-world is also an understanding of the conditional possibilities of transferring previous situations into the present, and they appreciate the fact that they can repeatedly grapple with the meaning of their existence . It is thus revealed to him, even if he has not yet understood it, that there is a connection between his individuality and his mortality that he can understand more and more real and more directly, i.e. his relationship to his being becomes more and more loving in this regard. Seen in this way, existence on this level of development understands the contrast or contradiction between linear and circular better and better, i.e. more and more real and more immediate, so that in the ideal case it even overcomes it with love. At least many more highly developed animals, especially mammals, which form communities such as herds, packs, hordes or family groups, also develop on this level, but with them there is no contradiction between linear and circular in their relationship to their being their transmissions and the meaning of their existence are not revealed to them. Thus they cannot appreciate anything at this level and also cannot overcome the corresponding contradiction.
Over time, the child's increasingly better understanding of the state of suffering or grief reveals that there are certain connections between past or origin, future and the current situation in which it has just arrived. It recognizes that there is a certain mediation here, as Nishida (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011) would put it, and in this way takes on more and more an intentional standpoint, which is characterized by Dasein either his own being and his own way of acting is focused on what he is interested in, or on that of others, if they are also concerned with their being and way of acting. In doing so, it increasingly recognizes the importance of not only understanding itself, but also being understood, i.e. about mutual mediation and understanding, and thus reaches the next level of development, in which language plays a decisive role as a means of understanding and developing it. Ontologically, the language according to Heidegger (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006, p. 160) is based on speech, which creates a connection between the situation and the state of mind by interpreting one as the other (hermeneutic "as") and makes it so understandable. In this respect, speech is subjective-objective in that it mediates between the subjective feeling and the objective situation. Language as an expression of speech is “a self-shaping act of creation” (ibid.). Through the expression, the hermeneutic “as” becomes apophantic, that is, a reference to the meaning, a means of communication that already exists in more highly developed animals. This possibility of communication is not based on the intention to communicate by means of the expression, but because the expression exists, we can communicate with each other (or some animals with each other and we with some animals) because of the meaning of the respective expression is understood. The linguistic expression is also subjective-objective, because it is not the expression "one People and is not from one People made ”(Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 72). Language serves to mediate or mutually acquire what has been understood between existential beings (i.e. people). In self-talk, existence can also acquire something that it has understood for itself. On this last level of development, the child experiences that the actions of others and also of himself can be based on mental states that endure over time, i.e. on acquired understanding, for example on convictions or certain preferences, so that every expression of a being has certain parts of its being or what it is. its existence and its actions. Since Dasein understands every way of being and acting as an expression or representation of its essence or being - essence or being are nothing substantial, but can be changed at any time through actions - the ontological difference (Heidegger, being and time , 2006), i.e. the difference between being and being at least explored. What is currently understood and what is grasped in speech determines the expression of existence, and this expression determines what is currently understood and what is understood in the opposing speech of others, and in that existence for this resonance is based on its expression, i.e. on the representation of its being, interested, it can be determined depending on what it is, that is, it corrects either its understanding or its expression. The latter, however, is only possible when Dasein encounters other beings that are so impressed by the expression of Dasein, i.e. the representation of its being, that Dasein can perceive this change, i.e. one determines one another (Nishida, self-identity and continuity of the world, 2011, p. 76), the other beings are determined by the expression of existence, i.e. the representation of its being, and existence by the change due to the impression on the other beings. Representation means the possibility of reproduction, which presupposes a memory. Language is thus the reproduction of memory content that others can understand. It is neither a reductionist representation of the outside world nor does it indicate an inner substance, a solid being or being. Since what is understood and understood in the speech is primarily temporal and the expression primarily spatial and includes the exchange with being in general (Kolb, 2011), the temporal determines the spatial and the spatial determines the temporal. Incidentally, this also corresponds to a comment in "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" (ibid.), According to which temporality has one dimension and three ecstasies into which existence can be raptured, while spatiality has three dimensions and only one ecstasy, namely the who has information. Existence can move freely within the three temporal ecstasies, while the time dimension has only one direction in which existence must move. Accordingly, Dasein can only move in one direction in spatial ecstasy, since it can no longer withdraw or give a certain letting in and the information received in the process, in turn it is freely movable in the three spatial dimensions. The world no longer appears to Dasein as an objective as well as subjective, both continuous and discontinuous, and linear as well as circular world, so that it is repeatedly confronted with unsolvable problems and angry (actual mode) or angry ( improper mode), is accordingly confronted with unpredictable risks and therefore fearful (proper mode) or fearful (improper mode) and analogously at the mercy of the uncertain fulfillment of his intentions and is therefore painful (proper mode) or sad (improper mode), but recognizes it more and more that in the world the modes of being and acting of a being represent as an expression of its momentary being, and another peculiarity of processuality, namely that the temporal is at the same time spatial and the spatial is temporal at the same time. As a parallel to the fact that Fonagy (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 212) describes this level of development as representational, I want to call the corresponding worldview or worldliness as representational, and this corresponds to the " expressive world ”by Nishida (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 77). For the child, the process of mediating between expression and what has been understood is not yet reliably feasible; at the beginning, he or she repeatedly experiences his understanding and expression as inadequate, which he notices from the fact that his actions as expressions of himself are interpreted by others as inadequate or that his actions have undesirable (side) effects. Dasein thus reveals the whole process-like nature with the ecstasies of the past or origin (past damage), the future (threats), the present or arrival (separation, absence) and the spatiality or information (inadequacy, fundamental guilt ¬nen), as explained in "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" in Chapter 9 (Kolb, 2011). In the worldliness of the child there is now an inner mediation between beings in different situations with expressiveness, the self-affirmation and self-determination of beings is for the child a creative act, the good and the bad mother, who the child met in the time, to encounter or to be able to encounter are now the same existential beings in the child's worldliness. The same applies to the child himself, who can only now experience himself as creative, albeit initially and mostly inadequately. If Dasein experiences itself as inadequate or even guilty, then its condition is disgust because of the inadequacy of its being-in-the-world (actual mode of this condition, "thoughts on" being and time ""; ibid.), With Dasein in in this case sees the responsibility for the inadequacy in oneself, or disgust at the repugnance of certain as inadequate perceived conditions in the world (improper mode of this state of mind), in which case Dasein is responsible for the inadequacy not itself, but the Ascribes repugnant in the world. People feel this loathing or disgust well into old age when they experience themselves or the circumstances of their existence as inadequate, for example when they have not kept plans, promises or resolutions, or when someone or something comes too close to them. While the mother understands her child as genuinely and directly as possible, i.e. comes as close as possible to the ideal of loving, she supports her child with marked affect reflection and sometimes humorous demonstrations of possible solutions in regulating the corresponding arousal, so that the child can process its state of mind and itself to understand more and more real and more directly located even on this level, i.e. to be able to love more and more. In this way he can learn more and more that his-being-in-the-world is an expression of himself, and appreciate that this possibility of expression is given to him, as well as learn to deal better and better with his inadequacies. It's not hideous to be inadequate, it is just hideous to indulge in it. Understanding one's guilt arises from temporality, but to make up one's mind to deal with it better and better, and to do so too, is spatial. Thus the feeling of disgust is a call to overcome the contradiction or contradiction between temporality and space, to give understanding expression and expression or information, or to give understanding to time, space and space, time. In interpersonal relationships it is important to give each other space, but also to be there for each other at the right time. The spatial-temporal contrast is also evident in the right way of helping one another, namely whether this is stepping in and dominating or projecting and liberating (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006, p. 122), whether one is giving the other space in time gives, that is, liberated, or not, that is, ruled. It is thus revealed to Dasein, even if it has not yet understood that, that it can learn to love more and more itself and all other existential beings that meet it, despite all the inadequacies, because to love means to understand genuinely and directly and to encourage it, to expressly appropriate and implement what has been understood, since Dasein is about its own being as well as being in general or simply (Kolb, 2011). Nobody has to be perfect, but nobody has to come to terms with their shortcomings because of that. In this way Dasein is increasingly able to understand this comprehensive aspect of its being genuinely and directly, i.e. its relationship to its being becomes more and more loving overall. Seen in this way, existence on this level of development understands the contrast or contradiction between temporal and spatial better and better, i.e. more and more real and more immediate, so that in the ideal case it even overcomes it with love. All other living beings except humans cannot reach this level and feel neither disgust nor disgust in this sense. An animal may be a little uncomfortable and avoid it, but that sensation has nothing to do with the disgust and disgust a human can experience. Disgust and loathing always include a devaluation or a value judgment, which animals are not capable of. If a value system develops from this, then the problem of the spatial-temporal antithesis shows up in a different way: the more inflexible such a value system is with regard to the location, i.e. the more it is temporally adapted (if that was and is threatening, then must ...), the less we can understand ourselves and others genuinely and directly in the respective for what will in different environments and act appropriately, ie our spatial judgment is limited, we can no longer find our way spatially (e.g. in other cultures). Our temporal orientation is at the expense of spatial. Conversely, if, conversely, we redesign our value system for each location, we are spatially very well oriented, but at some point we no longer know when which values should apply, i.e. our temporal orientation is gone.
If one considers the previous contrasts orConsidering contradictions, certain sensitivities are assigned to them, through the understanding of which existence develops more and more love and thus overcomes the contradictions and unites the opposites. The first contradiction that meets existence is the incompatibility of the opposites of active and passive as an affirmation and denial of self-determination. The corresponding state of mind is joy as the actual mode and fun as inauthentic. The more genuinely and directly the mother understands her child in this state of mind, reflects it and conveys that she herself can feel joy in the dynamic as well as in the static or in the activity as well as in the passivity, the more real and direct it can be Child first understand his mother and then himself and thus develop more and more love on this level and, if you pause accordingly, recognize more and more that activity is also a form of passivity and vice versa. With the second contradiction, with the incompatibility of the opposites of subjective and objective, the corresponding state of mind is actual anger and improper anger. Here, too, with the appropriate support from its mother on this level, the child can develop more and more in the direction of love and thereby gain more and more the impression that subjective is at the same time objective and objective at the same time subjective, in that it develops more and more compassion and experiences that he is often the same as his counterpart. A prerequisite for this, however, is a certain degree of development of possibilities to pause. In the contrast between continuous and discontinuous with actual fear and improper fear, the child understands more and more how important it is to keep himself open to all possibilities, and this openness, correctly understood, is not a purely intellectual matter, but borne by one more and more deeply feeling of harmony with the world and everything that encounters in it, i.e. a form of devotion and ultimately love that overcomes this contradiction. The prerequisite for this, however, is the development of opportunities to genuinely and directly understand and empathize with others to a certain extent. With the pair of opposites linear and circular with the sensitivity of suffering and grief, the child can understand more and more with the help of his mother how important patience is, because an opportunity missed today can be at the door tomorrow, and if the same thing happens again and again, it can but gradually give progress so that linear is at the same time circular and circular is linear at the same time. The prerequisite for this, however, is the development of possibilities to keep oneself open to a certain extent and to be able to be in harmony with oneself and other beings. The contrast between spatial and temporal with the sensitivity of actual disgust and improper disgust certainly makes the highest demands on existence, since it is about the explosive topics of inadequacy, guilt and shame. With the appropriate support from the mother, the child can understand more and more that it is not his inadequacy that is abhorrent, but only obsession or lack of determination to face his inadequacy and its consequences. Not only others, but ultimately also itself can only then forgive itself. This determination means that the child is always ready to pause, which in this case means that it does not fall into blind actionism and so distracts itself and fends off problems and conflicts in this way, but that, as Heidegger puts it, it (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006, p. 267 ff.), Have a conscience and listen to his call of conscience, i.e. want to understand it. Furthermore, this determination means that the child strives to understand the effects of his inadequacy more and more directly and more directly, and allows himself to be confronted with the state of suffering both in himself and in other living beings that can feel suffering - that is Remorse - with the sensitivity of anger in oneself and other living beings who can feel anger - that is the readiness to make amends - with the sensitivity of fear in oneself and other living beings that can feel fear - that is the willingness to take appropriate precautions to ensure that the inadequacy in question does not always have such consequences (Kolb, 2011). In putting this determination into practice, which can also be referred to as the willingness to repent in the sense of repentance, in the event that existence is guilty of an inadequacy, the probability is high that it will always be more and more in harmony with itself and other beings comes, so that with appropriate patience it can forgive itself and the affected other existential beings and all those involved can be (again) happy. These explanations make it clear how complex this level of development is, because existence here has to apply everything that it has worked out on the other levels in order to develop further here. To do this, it must be able to pause, be open to all sensitivities in itself and others (compassion), always come into harmony with itself and others, be patient with itself and others and be forgivable towards itself and others.
The more Dasein succeeds in overcoming all these contradictions and in unifying all these opposites, the more genuine and immediate understanding, i.e. love, it has developed, and its relationship not only to its own being, but to being in general is always greater in love and in truth (Kolb, 2011), so that ideally this relationship has no end (see ibid.). If there are no longer any contradictions and contradictions for Dasein, then Dasein has nothing to express, its self as loving is expressive and therefore ineffective for Dasein itself, “the innermost part of what is active [must] be non-working to be par excellence ”(Ohashi, 2011, p. 33), his being only has an expression and thus an effect for others. Then the self of existence is absolutely nothing (ibid.). The true relationship of Dasein to being in general, its true life, has neither a beginning nor an end and is therefore both temporal and non-temporal, and it is informative and at the same time informative (for others) and thus both spatial and non-spatial. The true self of Dasein is thus both to be and not to be, it is process-like and non-process-like, it is understandable and non-understandable, understandable and non-understandable. The oscillating and thus contradicting development of Dasein thus mediates being (self-being, authenticity, mutual dependence, love and fulfillment) and nothing (not-being-self, being me, inauthenticity, dependency, calm, compulsion and control) and thus corresponds to the absolute negation (both being and nothing are negated), which causes existence to come to absolute nothing. The self and the ego are both one and two, with the self having a functional priority over the more primordial, and collectively these two terms are intangible. For me, the absolute nothing is the self of existence, which has developed to the genuine and immediate understanding of the will of all beings, i.e. to love, and is thus the true self. It is I-less in that it is ineffective and ineffective for existence, but at the same time I-like in that it can be expressive and effective for others. Since love is the most general goal of the development of all existential beings and is also conceptually completely empty (real and immediate understanding is only negatively defined by me in what it is not: it is not an illusion and it is not mediated by anything) it absolutely and nothing, the absolute nothing.
In contrast to Nishida, absolute nothing is not based on direct or “pure” experience (Ohashi, 2011, p. 30 f.), But results from the contradicting development of existence towards love and fulfillment, which is only due to its contradictions or their oscillating movement between making oneself dependent in the pursuit of rest and control with the associated turning away from existence from itself and on the other hand the acceptance of mutual dependence in the pursuit of love and fulfillment with the associated reversal of existence to himself a development in the direction of love and fulfillment and the resulting truth of the relationship of existence to being in general, i.e. to being and to nothing, by understanding himself and others absolutely genuinely and directly in his and their for what sake (Kolb, 2011). This development is driven forward and demanded by the call of conscience out of the disgust attested by existence itself to do nothing about its inadequacies. The "pure" experience - and that is lacking in Nishida - can therefore only arise through the experience of the "impure" inadequacies that arouse this loathing in existence. This is only made possible through the development of self-identity, but Nishida does not see in this the invitation to seek pure experience, as witnessed by existence itself. This remains abstract and just a mere concept of fantasy, a senseless thought game. The pure experience of Nishida lacks both being-in-the-world and being-in-the-community. Thus, instead of pure experience, it is the oscillating development - when turning away, the negation of the self and the affirmation of the I, and in the reverse, the negation of the I and the affirmation of the self and thus the mediation of nothing and being on two levels, i.e. the absolute negation - that connects being and nothing. To emphasize it again, since this thought was not carried out in "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" (Kolb, 2011), this contradiction in development is absolutely necessary so that Dasein really and absolutely understand itself and others for what sake can. Without the horror of the two world wars in the last century, which our ancestors experienced and passed this experience on to us, we might have annihilated each other in a nuclear war and destroyed the livelihoods of many living beings on earth. Existence must probably turn away from itself again and again in order to understand and grasp more and more real and immediate real and immediate and to expressly convey to oneself and others that turning to oneself and resolute conversion after such a turning away is the only being - and is action that corresponds to his true being. With this development, Dasein does not always have to turn itself away from itself; it can also be sufficient if this is conveyed to it by the fact that it can observe similar occurrences in others or receive reports of corresponding events. While it may sound cynical, we must be grateful to Cain for killing Abel because it taught us how heinous murder is. Real cynicism is only when one creates or aggravates terrible conditions like Stalin and justifies this with the fact that this is the way to remedy these grievances.
The question that still has to be clarified is whether we have exhausted all the contradictions with these five fundamental contradictions or opposites, because otherwise the last lines of thought are not correct, that existence with its overcoming reaches the truth of its relationship to being and nothing . Since every contradiction is linked to a state of mind and each state of mind can be fully analyzed using the five basic sensitivities (Kolb, 2011), it is sufficient to show that every basic state of mind can be clearly traced back to the contradiction or contradiction already assigned above. Each basic condition is clearly assigned to one of the five levels of development, and each of these levels has a clear developmental task, which can be represented as overcoming a certain contradiction, namely the opposition that was assigned to the corresponding basic condition above. This shows that every contradiction or contradiction can be fully analyzed with the help of the five fundamental opposites, namely the contradiction of self-determination or active-passive, subjective-objective, continuous-discontinuous, linear-circular and temporal-spatial.
In the whole self-development of the child, when the child learns to determine itself more and more, it needs a primary caregiver, usually the mother, who should determine it as genuinely and directly as possible, because these are the optimal prerequisites that the child ultimately learns to determine himself as genuinely and directly as possible, ie to love. The whole development process of the child only works if mother and child are in a mutual relationship and the child, just as it learns to determine itself, also learns to determine its mother and let her determine itself so that they can themselves ultimately determine each other. Only then does a real expression and information come about, because, as stated above, expression is never something of a being alone, because the expression is always connected with an interaction with the world in which existence is, that is, the expression only comes in exchange. Real interpersonal contact consists of acts of expression that are at the same time acts of creation (Nishida, Selbstidentität und Kontinuität der Welt, 2011, p. 77). Worldliness in the sense of Heidegger consists of an expressly appropriated understanding of the world, i.e. it is always expressive, which Nishida calls the "expressive world" (ibid.). Existence is not expressive in order to provide information and establish contact with others, but information and contact arise from the fact that existence is expressive and thus interacting. Dasein is expressive or interactive, because it is being-in-the-world, every way of being and acting expresses something, and that can grasp, i.e. determine, everyone else. Viewed in this way, expressive worldliness is always a communal worldliness. It is both static and dynamic, both subjective and objective, both continuous and discontinuous, both linear and circular, and both temporal and spatial.
In the second essay by Nishida (Nishida, The artistic creation as a design act of history, 2011) from the anthology by Ohashi (Ohashi, 2011) he describes art as an "expression of historical life", which in my terminology (Kolb, 2011) Expression of the relation of a community to being in general is called. As explained in "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" (Kolb, 2011), a community has a structure so similar to Dasein that, just as I have described the relationship between Dasein and Being, the human life of this Dasein ( ibid), can call the relation of a community to being in general the community life of this community. According to Nishida, its expression is then art, which someone can only recognize as such if he or she realizes this community or its character, its rhysmôs (the poetic form of rhythm) as it ticks (ibid.) To a certain extent and immediately understands, i.e. loves to a certain extent. This brings us to the rituals of a community, the real and immediate understanding of which gives us the opportunity to understand the art of this community, since every ritual as a collective action is rhythmic according to a given, similar or identically repeating order and, according to Nishida, “from a violent emotional movement [must] be accompanied. ”(Nishida, The artistic creation as an act of shaping history, 2011, p. 115) Thus the rituals of a community expressly represent everything that this community is gripped by and what it expects, what is mine Work (Kolb, 2011) means that the rituals of a community express its care in the sense of Heidegger and thus essentially the being of this community towards the world. Understanding the rituals of a community means understanding the being of this community to the world, i.e. to what extent one really and directly understands the relationship of this community to being.
Art as an expression of this relationship seems too average to me, I think that art should be defined in such a way that it can contribute to the community in question developing in its understanding of its being to the world in the direction of real and immediate understanding, so towards love and true communal life. A community also has experiences that show its inadequacies, so that a disgust arises not to do anything about it or not to contain harmful effects. By drawing attention to this and possibly showing and playing through possible solutions, it makes such a contribution. Here again the lack of an invitation to action in Nishida's philosophy is evident.Art should therefore on the one hand express a more genuine and more direct understanding of communal life, but on the other hand also in such a way that this expression can be understood by the community, i.e. that this more genuine and more direct understanding of communal life is conveyed through art to the community, i.e. absorbed by it and can be appropriated. Georges Buffon (1707-1788) advocated a similar conception of art, in this case called a beautiful style, that is, a beautiful form of expression, in his famous inaugural address in 1753 at the Académie française: “[…] a beautiful style is indeed only that way because of the infinite number of truths that he conveys. "
In order to analyze the whole thing fundamentally, I would like to consider the first and most original community at this point, namely the community of mother and child, and here design acts and "acting outlook" (Nishida, Self-Identity and Continuity of the World, 2011, p. 112) With which Nishida expresses that action is always based on perception due to the act's emotion and expectation resulting from the perception, and that conversely, perception is always based on action, since the results of the action and the practice determine the way we look. As expected, rituals or repetitions and an associated rhythm play a major role in the mother-child relationship. All of the Fonagy et al. The as-if mode (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 266 f.) of the being of this community encompasses the realm of all its rituals. It is the mother's art to convey to her child more and more of her own understanding of being in the world in such a way that it can acquire it, integrate it with its realistic mode of being until it is around four years old, and thereafter with new experiences has the opportunity to change his worldliness accordingly, so that the congruence between his experiences and his worldliness is maintained or achieved. The latter is a necessary and sufficient condition for existence to develop more and more in the direction of love (Kolb, 2011). We find the following peculiarities in the rituals of the mother-child community: “Through the rhythmic repetition, the mother arouses the attention of her child, and her messages become more and more understandable for her child, so that it is more and more happy and laughing. The situation becomes more and more fun for the child, and his mother is also happy about it. Although the situation can be threatening for the child, it still has to laugh when its mother deals with it in the manner of rhythmic repetition. In the game, the mother sometimes makes herself more childlike than she is, like a clown, and by resolving the positive outcome of the scene she conveys hope to her child. The rhythmically repeated scene can have something not only liberating but also something great and uplifting to the child. Not only can the world not harm the child in play, the mother's rhythmic repetitions show him that the world is also an occasion for him to gain pleasure. The danger felt by the child is deliberately staged by the mother in the behavior and sometimes played around surprisingly for the child. Overall, the mother's play deepens her community with her child. The mother shows the child weaknesses and strengths, inadequacies and possibilities, and how to deal with them practically and to combine these opposites. All these peculiarities of rhythmic repetition make the humor clear, which in such productions gives the child not only comfort and reassurance, but also understanding and joy. ”(Ibid.) In these and also in rituals in general, Dasein feels“ a transcendent being . In doing so, [his] individuality is lost and [everyone in the community becomes] emotionally one. ”(Nishida, The artistic creation as an act of shaping history, 2011, p. 115) This felt wholeness or unity then becomes the basis as“ the sacred shaping society ”(ibid.). In the community of mother and child, the mother is an actress and the child is initially a spectator who increasingly develops into a fellow player. This also has its equivalent in rituals in general, in which the beginner is passive, but over time gets the opportunity to rise more and more in the hierarchy and thus in activity and self-determination. In the process in which the mother conveys her own worldliness or acting outlook to her child, mother and child find themselves in a playful as if mode or fantastic mode of being (Kolb, 2011), on which artistic creation is based while in the equivalence mode (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008, p. 263) or in the realistic mode of being (Kolb, 2011) the sciences have their basis. In art, which is based on the fantastic mode of being, the objective "sinks" into the subjective, in science, on the other hand, which is based on the realistic mode of being, the subjective into the objective (Nishida, The artistic creation as an act of shaping history , 2011, p. 128). Both must be integrated into worldliness so that there is no incongruence between experience and worldliness, which leads to inauthenticity and a development away from love and truth. Both in art and in science we find the two opposites active-passive - in science, for example, in active experiment and passive observation - and objective-subjective, each of which must be overcome or integrated so that both art and science can meet their demands of conveying truths. Now how about the other three fundamental opposites?
Both in art and in science we are dealing with abstractions in which we conceptualize what is already understood in the speech in order to express it, thereby communicating it to others and then expressly appropriating it ourselves and thus integrating it into our worldliness. Every abstraction is therefore a simplification in which what is “in motion at all is seen as resting” (ibid., Page 119). However, by not resting either in art or in science, but always creating or discovering something new - art and science are "fundamentally a movement from acting intuition to acting intuition" (ibid., Page 124) -, the contrast between continuous and discontinuous becomes evident here, since every movement can be both continuous and discontinuous. Both art and science serve to cope with fear, whereby art does this more through empathy, science more through predictions based on established laws. The fact that both art and science are based on the respective circumstances in order to fathom what is possible in each case, Heidegger describes this as being thrown-designing-in-the-world (Heidegger, Sein und Zeit, 2006, P. 148), Nishida as the contradictory self-identity of a person who moves "from an educated to an educated person" (Nishida, The artistic creation as a design act of history, 2011, p. 117), the opposition linear-circular with the Recognize the state of suffering. Only by going beyond this contradiction do we find redemption from our suffering in this world. In art, this redemption is achieved through “the joy of pure intuition” (ibid., Page 120), which we then perceive as beautiful. The beautiful is not, as Kant thinks, that which pleases without any interest, but, among other things, that with which we overcome our suffering. It is "an expression of historical life" (ibid.), I.e. the expression of the relationship between our community and being in general. Nishida also calls it "the paradigm of the species" (ibid, p. 121). So if a society perceives a woman to have large breasts as beautiful, then it is probably a consumer society that is just as ruthless with nature's resources as an infant with a mother's breast that is large and nourishing for him.
If we now want to look at the beautiful in more depth, we have to include our sensuality or our bodily senses with regard to the perception. In the sense of taste, as the first physically developing sense (a sense is not already developed when the physiological basis has been developed, but only when the data generated there is recorded, further processed and finally actively used), we find the primary contrast of affirmation and negation, whether it tastes good or it doesn't taste, which corresponds to the contrast between active and passive and the feeling of joy or fun when it tastes good. Colloquially it also means that someone has found a taste for something when he or she is actively engaged in something and enjoys or has fun with it. The sense of taste is already so developed in the fetus in the womb that the newborn recognizes its mother by the taste it has already tasted in the amniotic fluid. So when it recognizes this taste, it becomes active, sucks on the breast and is happy to be with its mother who has been recognized in this way. In the next developing sense, the sense of smell, existence also opens up the opposition of objective and subjective, namely whether that is "my smell" or that of something else that may bother "me", with the sensitivity of anger or anger , which is also expressed in the idiom that something stinks. As a result, the opposite can also be perceived objectively and subjectively in the sense of taste, a certain taste can be perceived as familiar or strange. In the sense of touch there is also the contrast between continuous and discontinuous, one feels anxiously or fearfully at something, as it is also called in the figurative sense. As a result, this contrast can also be recognized by the sense of taste and smell. In the sense of hearing, the contrast between linear and circular is also revealed, which is reflected, for example, in the eloquent term catchy tune and, in terms of the sensitivity to suffering or grief, in the term woe, which everyone expresses spontaneously when something hurts too much. The hearing is the first developing sense with which something further away can be perceived, i.e. nearness and distance, so that the feeling of suffering or sadness can be evoked on the basis of perceived separation. When Odysseus heard the sirens singing, he felt a great longing and just wanted to be with them. With the revelation of the opposition linear-circular, however, the previously developed senses cannot feel suffering and grief. This is because this mode of sensitivity has to do with distance and separation, but the first three bodily senses are only designed for proximity. In the sense of sight, with which we can best perceive movements and actions, we finally find out the contrast between spatial and temporal, since movements that are examined in physics, for example, are both spatial and temporal. Furthermore, depending on how something looks, we feel disgust or disgust. If, on the other hand, we perceive something to be beautiful, then it can neither be abhorrent nor disgusting, so that in art, too, this state of mind is used to deal with inadequacies. Here, too, following this development, there is the phenomenon that the feeling of disgust and disgust can also be felt in all other senses, because we feel disgust and disgust more strongly the closer something comes to us, so that we then with it can perceive all senses, even with the first three. This shows that the spatial-temporal contrast also plays a decisive role in both art and science. Since corporeality includes the senses and sensuality, and if the spiritual is the existing understanding and apprehension of the processuality and thus also the ontological difference and the self, it becomes clear that both in art and in science the physical and spiritual are important , and the previous analysis of the development of the self, in part by Fonagy et al. (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2008), and that of the five bodily senses was able to show that in the physical as well as in the spiritual the same opposites prevail with the same dynamics and each determine the development, so that in the absolute, when all opposites are overcome and love and fulfillment have been achieved, the body-spiritual contrast has also been overcome, or as Nishida puts it: "Our body is spiritual through and through, our spirit is entirely physical." (Nishida, The artistic creation as an act of shaping history , 2011, p. 122)
In addition to these five bodily senses, there is also a sixth sense with which the five bodily senses really make sense: that is our sense of context, the sense of ideas, prognoses, aesthetics, in short our intellect. Through our physical senses we get more and more an impression of the world around us, so that we gain more and more experience about what goes with what and what doesn't. This is how conceptions and ideas form in us, we get premonitions, and when something goes well together in the sense that we are enthusiastic about it, then we find it beautiful or aesthetic. In the case of an aesthetic sensation, there is therefore at least at the beginning a moment of the unexpected, of surprise, and mostly of pleasant surprise. As recent research results in neurobiology suggest, this sixth sense is also a bodily sense, because there is also a physical correlate to it (just as the eyes are a physical correlate for the visual sense): the so-called Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) at the top The end of the frontal lobe processes environmental impressions and integrates them with past experiences (Brown & Braver, 2005). The cited article only examines risk estimates in which the ACC seems to play an important role, but in my opinion it is reasonable to assume that this area is, in general, its physical correlate with the sixth sense described above. In the actual mode, I would like to describe the associated state of mind as enthusiasm for being-in-the-world and in the improper mode as a passion for something specific.
As for the beautiful, Kant is in a certain way right: the beautiful is everything that initially pleases as a pleasant surprise without interest, but then arouses interest, depending on which or which of the five fundamental opposites it is can help to understand and overcome them better, and whether the opposite or the opposites are of interest. At the moment when the beautiful pleases without interest, it must already be revealed to existence, if not yet understood by it, for which or for which of the opposites what is beautiful is useful and conducive to understanding and overcoming , and that this or these opposites are sufficiently important at the moment. Once perceived as beautiful, the beautiful no longer pleases without a certain interest, but with enthusiasm, i.e. the enthusiasm or the actual interest is only triggered by the beautiful, but relates to being-in-the-world in general. In this respect, the beautiful is pleasing without direct interest. In the case of direct interest, the sensitivity would be in the improper mode of passion instead of enthusiasm and the beautiful would no longer be beautiful, but only an addictive substance. In particular, the beautiful can enliven or relax, help to concentrate more on oneself or to pay more attention to others, calm fears or draw attention to dangers, comfort or make suffering accessible, as well as sensitize for topics like guilt and responsibility and ultimately always also overall for love and fulfillment, for the achievement of which the beautiful can motivate, so that the enthusiasm for love is awakened. The beautiful is that which (actually) arouses enthusiasm, initially without interest in the beautiful itself, then with passion (improperly) for the beautiful, which can thereby become an addictive substance until it arouses enthusiasm for love and then pleases the beautiful permanently without interest. Only after existence has gone through this development is Kant right.
The more existence overcomes the five fundamental opposites, whereby in the end it is sufficient to overcome the last spatial-temporal conflict, because this is only possible when all others have also been overcome, the more its emotion and expectation has developed into love and fulfillment, and its relationship to being in general more and more to truth, i.e. to true human life (Kolb, 2011), whereby this also corresponds to the true relationship of Dasein to being and to nothing, so that the oscillating development of Dasein is the absolute negation (see above).Here, too, it becomes clear once again that the absolute nothing is not formally defined, but rather comes from the disgust at persistence in inadequacies and the resulting longing for love, so that an absolutely genuine and immediate understanding of existence of its own will and for what that of others, that is, from all being and acting, since this is always based on a will for what beings and acting people are. This development only takes place as being-in-the-world and being-in-the-community, whereby the hermit is also in a community, he only has a greater geographical distance to the others from his community. Art without being-in-the-community, i.e. "if transcendence was completely ignored [would] become a mere fantasy", science without being-in-the-world, i.e. "if immanence was completely ignored [would] become a mere concept" (Nishida, Artistic Creation as an Act of Designing History, 2011, p. 124).
The fantastic mode in the mother-child community, in which fantasy naturally plays a major role (hence the name), is therefore not mere fantasy only when there is transcendence between mother and child, that is, when both are, in the terminology Nishidas, in other words, determine one another. Correspondingly, the realistic mode is only then not mere conceptuality if Dasein is immanently itself, i.e. if it determines itself and acts in a self-determined manner. The more both are integrated, i.e. when the opposition between fantasy and reality or transcendence and immanence is overcome better and better, the development process of existence can progress towards love and fulfillment. Only in this way are art and science more and more possible as mediators of truth. The artistic creation thus becomes a self-organizing process within the community in which existence acts artistically. In this respect, a work of art is less the work of the artist and more the work that develops out of communal being, of transcendence, in which the artist has made himself available as a tool in person (ibid., P. 127). The artistic creation can also be described as an actually involuntary shaping act of existence as being in-the-community, whereby it means the following when existence is "actually involuntary": it gives in to the flow of events, i.e. to the momentum of its own the process-like nature or the being of one's being-in-the-community; his experiences are congruent with his self-confidence, the structure of his self-designs, which make his previous development history in his community, his conditionality and his thrownness, understandable; It trusts in the dynamic of its own being of existence as being-in-the-community, so it has self-confidence; it surrenders itself to being in the community in the moment (Kolb, 2011). In this respect, because of the involuntary nature just described, artistic creation is a trance phenomenon.
As shown in "Thoughts on" Being and Time "" (ibid), there is an oscillation of development in human life, i.e. in the relationship between existence and being in general, on the one hand in the direction of love and fulfillment, and on the other in the direction of dependence Calm and control. That is why there is such a back and forth in art too, so that Nishida Dostoyevsky's “The Karamazov Brothers” quotes: “[In art] the devil fights with God, and the battlefield is the human heart” (Nishida, The artistic creation as a creative act der Geschichte, 2011, p. 130). True artistic creation must therefore make a contribution to ensuring that the community in question continues to develop in its understanding of its being to the world in the direction of real and immediate understanding, i.e. in the direction of love and true communal life. Art should therefore, on the one hand, express a more genuine and more direct understanding of communal life and action, but on the other hand, at the same time, in such a way that this expression can be understood by the community, that is, this more genuine and more direct understanding of communal life and action through the artistic creation of the community mediated, that is, can be absorbed and appropriated by it. The artist is then a kind of mediator who helps others understand more and more genuinely and more directly, i.e. learn to love, and since he does this with understanding, i.e. as lovingly as possible, he should understand as genuinely and directly as possible at which point in their development the others are, viewed as a whole, love is the basis of the entire mediation process, ie love mediates itself and is therefore the basis of everything.
- What is your favorite video game
- Why does it happen 2
- Why is vegetarianism preferred in India
- Which 5G phones will be introduced in India?
- Is it worth going to Google IO
- What are the best designer sunglasses
- What gifts can you give boys
- What is the most enjoyable lesson
- Should I reactivate my Facebook?
- Can lawyers represent a family?
- You can use profanity with the police
- Can an object have several resonance frequencies
- How light sticks shine
- What's new with a phone camera
- How do girls lose weight quickly
- How many Star Wars fans are there
- Muslim women can wear makeup
- What are textile manufacturers
- Why does unheated lightning not produce thunder?
- Why are the British so profane
- How can you suspend WSJ during your absence?
- How did Bette Nesmith Graham die
- When can I have a car
- Can see cockroaches in complete darkness