What are the effects of the sun tan


What exactly is UV radiation?
The sun sends a whole bundle of different rays to the earth. A good half is visible light, 44% consists of heat, and 4% is made up of UVA and UVB rays. UV radiation is contained in the spectrum of sunlight. This ultraviolet radiation is invisible to the human eye. It is divided into UVA, UVB and UVC. While the UVC rays are completely filtered out by the ozone envelope, we are exposed to parts of the UVB and UVA rays.

What is the difference between UVA and UVB radiation?
The UV radiation is divided into short-wave UVB and long-wave UVA radiation. UVB rays are mainly responsible for sunburn. If the skin ages prematurely, it is mainly due to the UVA rays.
UVB is the most active component of sunlight. It is responsible for many sun-related UV effects in nature. UVA and UVB, for example, stimulate our pigment cells to produce the brown melanin that we appreciate so much as a healthy summer tan. Too much UVB damages the skin and can lead to skin cancer after years or decades.

Are UVA rays completely harmless to the skin?

Previous research has mainly focused on the risks of UVB rays. The effects of UVA radiation are now also increasingly being investigated. For example, caution is advised today with sun protection creams that only contain UVB filters. These protect against sunburn, but at the same time extend the unhindered exposure time of the UVA rays. This can have dangerous consequences in terms of premature aging. But that's not all: according to the latest findings, UVA radiation also contributes to the formation of skin cancer. For these reasons, a sunscreen that contains UVA and UVB filters should be used as a matter of urgency.

Why does the skin turn brown when exposed to UV radiation?
Tanning is our skin's protective mechanism. If UV rays hit the skin, the upper horny layer thickens and forms the so-called light callus. This reduces the incident UVB rays. If UVB rays penetrate further into the skin, the pigment melanin is formed in the deeper layers of the skin and forms a “protective cap” over the cell nucleus - the skin turns brown. The melanin absorbs the UV light and protects the skin from damage.

Are solariums "healthier" for the skin than normal UV light?
In general, a visit to the solarium means additional hours of sunshine - and we know that the skin never forgets a ray of sunshine that it receives in the course of life. An occasional visit to the solarium does not cause skin cancer - but if you go regularly to get that summer tan all year round, it is just as harmful as excessive sunbathing under the natural sun.
The claim that tanning beds are "healthier" comes from a time when nothing or too little was known about the effects of UVA rays. Numerous studies have now shown that UVA rays are very much involved in the development of skin cancer. Light-skinned, blonde and red-haired people often try to compensate for their deficit in tanning ability by numerous visits to the solarium; but it is precisely they who have to be particularly careful when dealing with the sun. This also applies to the solarium - so be true to your skin type!
If there is a tendency to "sun allergies" (itchy blisters, especially on the neckline and arms), in addition to a very high level of medical sun protection, precisely dosed UV light radiation monitored by a dermatologist can be a preventative measure.

What do I have to consider when visiting the solarium?
When visiting a solarium, you should be precisely informed about the type of radiation source.

UVA high-performance lamps such as turbo tanners almost entirely shield UVB radiation. The strength of their tanning UVA radiation was multiplied compared to the sun in order to keep the irradiation time short. The disadvantage of the high UVA dose: It accelerates the aging of the skin and can lead to skin cancer.

The effect of devices with a medium UVB component, for example most home solariums, is comparable to the effect of the sun. This means that if these lamps are used carelessly excessive exposure, an increased risk of cancer cannot be ruled out.

The mountain sun with its high proportion of UVB is probably the best-known UV high-pressure emitter. It's so dangerous that it shouldn't be used at all.

Unfortunately, there is a tendency to be observed that more UV B components are now being integrated again into the solarium bulbs, which means that they are more harmful - unfortunately often at the request of customers, because it tans more.

Does it make sense to prepare for a vacation in the solarium?
A medically controlled UV therapy with radiation devices in the practice is useful for the prevention of sun allergy, a so-called polymorphic light dermatosis, UV intolerance and the appearance of nodules and itching. There are more negative reports for tanning beds (apart from advertising statements).

What do I do about sun allergy?
In the case of severe forms of a UV-related rash, sunscreens are only of limited effectiveness, as they mainly protect against UVB rays. UVA protection, such as so-called "radical scavengers", e.g. combinations of beta-carotene (provitamin A), a- Tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or niacin plus folic acid.

The dermatologist can slowly get used to light with light therapy. The skin gets used to the sun's rays by slowly increasing full-body irradiation with a special artificial light (mainly UVA). Another treatment option are agents that are taken for malaria, but can also be used for a number of skin diseases in which light sensitivity plays a role.