What is Louis Farrakhan doing now

Nation of Islam

, also called «Black Muslims». The process of industrialization and urbanization at the beginning of the 20th century led to an internal migration of black agricultural workers from the southern USA to the industrial centers of the north (Chicago, Detroit, New York). Cultural uprooting, social declassification, competition with the European emigrants and virulent racism of the white population promoted the development of a black identity of their own, which was initially reflected in the common experience of slavery and the common african. Origin constituted. The first islam were formed at the beginning of the 20th century. Organizations among the black population, where "Islam" initially stood as a code for cultural demarcation from the Christian white population. The movement of the Black Muslims had its origin in the Detroit ghetto, where the self-appointed minister (preacher) Wallace Fard has been missionary among the black population since 1930. worked. Fard's teaching consisted of the prohibition of certain foods, v. a. he saw it as his task to make blacks their supposedly authentic. Islam. To reproduce identity. However, islam was limited. Character of his teaching in certain terms and did not contain any concrete content. Fard disappeared under unexplained circumstances in 1932, whereupon his closest confidante, Elijah Muhammad, took over the leadership of the movement. Under him the systematization of the doctrine took place, which he summarized in the pamphlet Message to the Blackman in America. So he constructed a bizarre cosmogony and mythology that is Islam. Contains elements and terms, but in essential parts falls back on a biblical repertoire that is known under the chiliast.-apokalypt. baptist. Sects were widespread in the south. The N.I. initially represented a consistent separatism from the white population and rejected the myth of the American way of life. Until the late 1950s, the organization was largely unnoticed by the public. This changed abruptly when Malcolm X became one of Elijah Muhammad's closest confidants and became charismatic. Preacher gave the organization a controversial but powerful voice. Between 1959 and 1963 the N.I. advanced to an aggressive antithesis to the universalist. aligned black civil rights movement under Martin Luther King, which an equal integration of blacks in the American. Society demanded. Elijah Muhammad and v. a. Malcolm X denounced the civil rights movement as a representative of the already assimilated black middle class and called for a strict, racist. justified separatism. Its members were recruited by v. a. from socially disadvantaged groups in the large industrial cities, the proselytizing of prisoners was particularly successful. In 1963 Malcolm X fell out with his mentor Elijah Muhammad, which led to his exclusion from the N.I. After his assassination (1965) by members of the N.I., public interest in the organization ebbed. After the death of Elijah Muhammad (1975), his son Wallace Fard Jr. brought about a fundamental change of course and an rapprochement with the Sunni. Conservative Islam. Services were held in Arabic, Islam. Lunar calendar used and the movement in «Islam. Mission in America »renamed. They were also paramilitary. Groups abolished and the Fard, hitherto revered as divine, became a representative of islam. Mysticism reinterpreted. In February 1981, under a former confidante of Elijah Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan, the N.I. was resurrected. The social framework conditions of the early 1980s made it possible for the organization v. a. was able to recruit numerous members among the “gangs” in Los Angeles and New York. In addition to the separatism that already existed under Elijah Muhammad, there was also increasing anti-Semitism under Farrakhan, which led to controversial discussions in the US at the end of the 1980s. Public led. Farrakhan followed a more moderate course in the 1990s. In 2010 Farrakhan introduced the Scientology sect's scriptures and teachings into the N.I. According to diverging estimates, the N.I. has 20,000 - 50,000 members today. Many rap musicians, such as Public Enemy (Professor Grip, Chuck D.), Ice-T, Ice Cube, Snoop Dog or Sister Souljah, are or were close to the organization.

Literature:
Gardell, M .: In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam, 1996.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Tim Epkenhans, University of Freiburg, Iranian Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.