What is the root of all languages

Where does the German language come from?

Linguistics cannot clearly say where the German language has its origins. There are many theories and assumptions about this. The history of the German language goes back to the early Middle Ages, which is the time when German separated from other Germanic languages. However, prehistory goes back much further and also has Indo-European roots.

General information on the history of the German language

German is a language of the Germanic language group and belongs to the Indo-European language family and thus has its origin in the Indo-European original language. Historical Indo-European falls into the Neolithic Age and is used from 5000 BC. Until approx. 2000 BC Classified. The Indo-European languages ​​of Europe include the Germanic (German, Swedish, English, Dutch, Frisian, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Yiddish), celtic (Irish, Gaelic, Welsh, Breton), Romance (French, Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Romansh, Romanian), slavic (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian), Baltic (Lithuanian, Latvian) as well as the Greek and Albanian languages. The Indo-European languages ​​outside of Europe include: Armenian, Iranian (Persian, Kurdish) and the Indian languages (Hindi, Hindustani, Bengali, Urdu, Punjabi).

It is assumed that the Germanic original language developed from the Indo-European language in the first millennium BC. Has developed.

The Indo-European language origin of the German language

Where the Indo-European comes from is controversial. However, the "steppe theory" is widespread. This assumes that the original language came from the Russian steppe. The also well-known Anatolia Hypothesis assumes that the origin of Indo-European Anatolia (today's Turkey) and that it developed around 10,000 years ago.

The Germanic language origin and the first German languages

Over time, the Germanic language developed from Indo-European, especially in the areas around Germany and Scandinavia. These include the North Germanic languages ​​(Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Danish) and the East Germanic (Gothic) as well as the West Germanic languages. German and English developed from the West Germanic languages. It is therefore assumed that the ancient Germans from 2,000 BC onwards. BC in what is now Scandinavia and Northern Germany. From there, many Germanic tribes migrated south from the 2nd century AD.

Subsequently, the various Germanic tribal languages ​​developed into the pre-German dialects. The development was shaped by the Latin language, which was spoken in the Roman Empire. Many of these dialects still exist today in a modified form, e.g. Bavarian, Franconian and Saxon.

The development of the German language

The first stage of German development took place between 600 and 1050 and is known as Old High German. During this time the word “German” appeared for the first time in its current meaning, which means something like “folkish” or “belonging to the people”. This was followed by the development stage of Middle High German, which was spoken in the German areas until 1350. From 1350 the epoch of the Early New High German and from 1650 of the New High German, which continues to this day. However, these are only approximate data, precise details are not possible.