Is Italian music popular in Russia

A long night about music in World War IIIn front of the barracks in front of the great gate

Music, whether gospel, swing, opera or hits, was used for propaganda, as an instrument of resistance, for agitation and, last but not least, for the enjoyment of the population. For the first time, radio offered a medium for worldwide distribution. Music became a mass phenomenon.

"We are dealing with a puzzling situation here: the coexistence of art and crime," says the British historian Patrick Bade, author of a cultural history of music in the Second World War. Music was ubiquitous to the war effort.

A long night full of examples from radio speeches, perseverance slogans, noisy noises and high-pitched, sharp tones.

Repetition on August 5th / 6th, 2017

Patrick Bade: "Music Wars 1937-1945 - Propaganda, Sparkles of the Gods, Swing: Music in the Second World War",512 pages with illustrations, Laika Verlag, € 34.00, ISBN: 978-3-944233-41-3

Patrick Bade wrote a knowledgeable musical history of World War II. It tells of the many different meanings and functions that music has acquired in the face of destruction, death and violence.

In the Second World War, music played an unprecedented role:Whether live or via the new media of radio, film or record, music underpinned the propaganda, it should strengthen one's own morale and weaken that of the enemy. Music was used quite openly as a means of propaganda, but it was also the "elixir of survival" and served as a distraction: Classical concerts and operas, which were performed under the most dangerous circumstances, were well attended in all countries involved in the war. People danced to swing and hits and fell in love - precisely because every day could be the last.

And Bade tells very vividly about those whose calling was music - about composers, conductors, musicians, singers: Quite a few paid with their lives, others had to go into exile. Most of those who stayed in Germany collaborated and benefited from the events. On the Allied side, many took an active part in the war with their music and turned it into a weapon against fascism.

All warring parties recognized the propaganda benefits of musicand use them in a variety of ways. The pianist Myra Hess, for example, reinforced the resolve of the London population with a series of lunchtime concerts at the National Gallery. The Bayreuth Festival opened its doors to war casualties and ammunition workers, and the German occupiers held innumerable musical events in Paris. Classical music flourished and reached new audiences.

A powerful weapon in the use of music for war was the swing, which developed an irresistible force that the Nazis also tried to use.

In the end, however, the most effective music was that which had central emotions and experiences of the war such as loss, separation, hope and longing as its content, often composed as a schnulze. In Great Britain it was Vera Lynn with her famous title We’ll Meet Again, in Nazi Germany it was Zarah Leander with I know that a miracle will happen one day; then Lale Andersen and Lili Marleen achieved a million-dollar success in the German Reich, which soon became an international soldier's song among all warring parties.

Patrick Badehas been a lecturer at Christie's Education in London since 1981 and works at the London Jewish Cultural Center. He publishes regularly on the visual arts and music.

Patrick Bade: "It would have been impossible to cover the music of the Second World War in every country. I mean, as I said, the book only has 500 pages. And I am aware that certain things dare to get closer to something than others. For example, there would be a lot more to be said about the Soviet Union than I did. I have also been restricted by the language. My source material, I mean, I can use Italian, there are some things I can use, but my source material was German, French and English - and that limited the scope of the book. "

The book, which is 500 pages long, could have been 1000.

Because if you follow the individual stories yourself, you get deeper and deeper. Everyone who was active, active, employed and active as a musician, actor, author, etc. in the Second World War, especially in Germany, Austria, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the USSR, had to do with the regimes. Inevitable, anyway in National Socialist Germany.

The life paths of all those involved have been astonishing, catastrophic, perfidious, fatal, life-destroying, corruptible, unbelievable and incomprehensible. Regardless of whether you are talking about the 'big' Gustaf Gründgens or the many small ones.

Two examples of how the time between 1937 and 1945 worked:

Rome 1944:The Berliner Rundfunk Sinfonie Orchester under the direction of Leopold Ludwig and the choir of the Reichsender Berlin perform Puccini's "Tosca". But they don't sing, in view of the course of the years and the approaching end they roar, the police chief of the opera, Scarpia, becomes real, he not only yells, he screams.

The song "Maréchal, nous voilà!" (Marshal, here we are !, unofficial national anthem), a song in honor of the collaborator Philippe Pétain, head of state in Vichy-France, is based heavily on a melody by the Polish-French composer Casimir Oberfels - died as a Jew in Auschwitz in 1945 .

In theUnited States of Americathe situation was different, invariably different, apart from the fact that the war did not take place on US soil. The US fought on two fronts, in the Pacific and in Europe. And the entertainment industry was much more developed, advanced and flourishing than in European countries. That the country had a third internal front, segregation, and was therefore still racist - and thus discriminatory - should be just as clear.

The culture of the exiles and emigrants in the USA

What was also clear: The United States benefited like no one else from the thousands of exiles and emigrants who wanted to leave Europe, specifically Germany, had left and had to leave. A situation beyond that that robbed and stolen crucial parts of Germany's culture - something that we experienced after the end of the war, of course.
Arts in exile and list of well-known German-speaking emigrants and exiles (1933–1945)

Author tip: go songs, go performances, go by names

You won't find an end. Just sleepless nights. Orientate yourself to the music arrangement of this "Long Night" (also on the Net), all original recordings, treasures, some performers forgotten, some present. All of them played a role in the period from 1937 to 1945 - and before and after. Some at this time play the role of their lives.

The overture to the Second World War

The audition or the overture to the Second World War began in 1935/36. On the one hand with Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia, today's Ethiopia, and on the other hand with the fact that the German Empire and the Soviet Union fought each other as a representative in the Spanish Civil War. The German Reich quite openly on the side of the nationalists, the hesitant and reserved Soviet Union on the side of the republicans. From a musical point of view, according to Patrick Bade in his book, 1937 was the decisive year.

"The Italian invasion of Abyssinia had not only diplomatic but also immediate musical consequences, which, although they might seem trivial at the time, should have been a warning in the age of totalitarian regimes: that art and politics can be seen separately turned out to be fiction."

"In response to French and British sanctions against Italy, leading Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli outraged refused to sing in the UK. And the French opera Mignon at La Scala in Milan was exchanged for Cilea's 1897 opera L'Arlesiana, which never turned out right and had never been performed at La Scala, Italy's leading premiere opera house. The decision was made for this opera for pragmatic reasons, as it offered suitable roles for the artists Tito Schipa and Gianna Pederzini, who were already engaged for Mignon at the time The success of the performances, spurred on by patriotic zeal, made L 'Arlesiana one of the favorite operas of Italian audiences throughout the fascist period and for a few years afterwards; and the really beautiful tenor aria Lamento di Federico is still part of the standard repertoire of lyrical tenors today. "

"More importantly, the British-French sanctions against Italy literally drove Mussolini into Hitler's arms and led to a political coalition between the two countries with the most important operatic traditions. Mussolini sealed the axis when he took over the Scala ensemble as ambassador of the The Scala came up with the best cast from back then: Beniamino Gigli, Gina Cigna, Ebe Stignani and Tancredo Pasero sang in Verdi's Requiem, Mafalda Favero and Giuseppe Lugo in La Bohème and again Gigli, Cigna, Stignani and Pasero in Aida. Toscanini's successor, the demonically brilliant Victor de Sabata, was the conductor of all performances. "

Arletty - The Garance in "Children of Olympus".

Arletty, who died in 1992 at the age of 94, was a factory worker, stonographer, mannequin, revue dancer and actress. Your most famous role? The guarantee in "Children of Olympus". More at Wikipedia
"Les enfants du paradis" (1945) Trailer 1 and Trailer 2

Since Arletty had a love affair and long friendship with the German Air Force officer and later writer and diplomat Hans-Jürgen Soehring, her star began to decline after the Second World War.

Soehring himself, who later co-founded Group 47, was demoted in occupied Paris and sent to the front. The pen pal with Arletty lasted until his death. What did she say once? "My heart beats French, but my bottom is international."

Review of:Klaus Harpprecht: "Arletty and her German officer. A love in times of war", S. Fischer Verlag, in: Büchermarkt, Deutschlandfunk, May 8, 2011

Klaus Harpprecht, born in 1927, writes about Arletty, the actress of his youth:"The big dark eyes that loved to laugh and still lose themselves in sadness, the shimmering skin of the shoulders and décolletés, the amused play of the corners of the mouth when they leave their box with friends and flirtations from their own years in the showman's trade observed the small gestures of camaraderie, the serene grace, the natural nobility of the movements of these high-ranking courtisans. "

Patrick Bade to research the music history of the Second World War

"I would like to start by saying that it differs from most other books dealing with music history and World War II in that I mainly used music recordings as a source. One of the amazing achievements of our times for me is that I I didn't even have to leave my house to listen to most of the thousands of recordings that made it into the book.I have been collecting music myself for over half a century: since my grandparents replaced their 78s with LPs and I got their collection Many of the recordings mentioned in the book, including O my beloved father and many other popular songs, were already part of that collection, and over the years tens of thousands of shellac and vinyl records and CDs have come together that contain music from the period I made treat in my book.

The Second World War was actually a war of the airwaves as well. An unbelievable number of recordings that were made during this period are now available on records or CDs, often illegal or semi-legal recordings made by small private companies.

Otherwise, flea markets all over Europe proved to be rich sources of printed matter, as did the Parisian shop La Galcante, in its labyrinth-like old cellar vaults and corridors located under the Rue de l'Arbre Sec, almost all of the newspapers and magazines published in France over the past two centuries can be found. The »Nachrichten« - magazines, which were distributed throughout Europe for propaganda purposes during the war, also proved to be a fascinating source of images and often a lot of one-sided and distorted information, which in turn gave an impression of the mood at the time.

There are personal testimonies throughout the book. I was able to rely on the memories of a number of private conversations, for example with Arletty, Erna Berger, Hilde Zadek, Renée Doria, Kyra Vayne, Spoli Mills, Ernst Gombrich, Friedlinde Wagner and, of course, on the conversations with my parents. Both worked for the British armed forces, and in fact you could say that Hitler brought them together. "

Erna Bergerwas a German opera and concert singer. Read it at Wikipedia. An obituary for "Zeit Online"
Erna Berger - Da Capo - Interview with August Everding 1986 on YouTube

Erna Berger "Spring Voices" Strauss II on YouTube

Hilde Zadekis a German-Austrian opera and lied singer. Wikipedia
In: Judaism in Austria today– 2009, University of Vienna


Singing as a way - from the life of the chamber singer Hilde Zadek on YouTube
Hilde Zadek & Anton Dermota "happiness that remained for me" on YouTube

Renée Doria, a French opera singer who was considered the most notable coloratura soprano of her era in France. More at Wikipedia (French) "Dis-moi que je suis belle" at YouTube

Kyra Vaynewas a Russian opera singer who fled to England during the October Revolution. Read it at Wikipedia
"Vissi d'arte" Tosca on YouTube

Spoli Millsis the daughter ofMischa Spoliansky, Russian-British composer of revues and film music, who had worked in Germany until 1933, with Max Reinhardt, among others.
More about Mischa Spoliansky
Mischa Spoliansky - Tonight or Never [Tonight or Never] (1932) on YouTube

Ernst Gombrichwas a British art historian of Austrian origin.
More at Wikipedia
Gombrich Archive

AndFriedelinde Wagner... As the name suggests. Friedelinde Wagner was the second child of Siegfried and Winifred Wagner.
More also in: Wagner's white vest, Bayreuth's rebel Friedelind

THE song of World War II: Lili Marleen

"On April 19, 1941, during their triumphant conquest in the Balkans, the Germans occupied the radio station in Belgrade in order to broadcast from there to the war zone around the Mediterranean. Musical entertainment was necessary to buffer the propaganda and news broadcasts; unwanted Jewish or Serbian echoes had been sorted out from the radio archive, there were only 54 records left. A Richard Kistenmacher was sent on an urgent mission to Vienna to the nearest Nazi-controlled station to get some popular music. In a box full of unwanted records fell Kistenmacher also got Lale Andersen's Lili Marleen into the hands.

In the beginning, due to the lack of other material, the recording was played twice or more every hour, but after a short time the staff of Radio Belgrade could no longer hear the song and took it off the program. To everyone's surprise, the station was literally inundated with protests afterwards. In North Africa, with the men of Rommel's Africa Corps, and all over Europe, Schultzes had hit a catchy tune. At some point every evening, before the last news at 10 p.m., it announced the end of broadcasting. Lili Marleen had long since overcome the borders with enemy territory and was also very popular with the troops of the British Eighth Army. "

"Every evening at 9:55 p.m. there was therefore a brief armistice between the warring German and British armies, which had their camps within hearing distance of each other."

Goebbels couldn't stand the song, he thought it was "defeatist" and "smelly like a corpse."

Among the 197 versions of Lili Marleen that existed in a CD box are 75 that were recorded during the war years in every imaginable language: English, Dutch, Bulgarian, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, Danish , Swedish and Finnish and Japanese. And again and again with textual changes.

Suzy Solidor, French singer, androgynous appearance, who was said to have numerous relationships with both well-known men and women, mixes the song with an unexpected sexual connotation ...

Suzy Solidor - Lili Marleenon YouTube

Since France is one of the few countries left untouched by Lili Marleen, Solidor pays dearly for their association after the war.She goes to the USA, comes back, moves back to the Cote d´Azur, opens a private club and becomes an antique dealer.

Lucie Mannheim's version, Mannheim emigrated to England in 1933, Lucie Mannheim's version is broadcast by the BBC for German listeners and was one of the many with propaganda lyrics ...

Lucie Mannheim - Lili Marleenon YouTube

When Lale Andersen's contacts with Swiss Jews, in particular Rolf Liebermann, later head of the main music department of the North German Radio and director of the Hamburg State Opera, became public, Joseph Goebbels had the song banned in 1942. Lale Andersen's name disappeared from the press, it was censored. Her memoirs are called "Leben mit ein Lied". She died in Vienna in 1972.

Lale Andersen - Lili Marleenon YouTube

Without question, Lili Marleen is THE song of World War II, in almost every country. Why? It's mysterious, a fascinating story, because it's actually a song that could have disappeared without a trace, a series of accidents.

Norbert Schulze, the composer of "Lili Marleen"

Norbert Schulze, the composer who, in addition to "Lili Marleen" and "Take me with you, Captain, on the journey", plays such as "From Finland to the Black Sea", the song of the "Panzer Group Kleist", "Panzer roll in Afrikavor", "Bomben auf Engelland" and Veit Harlan's "Kolberg" set to music, died in Bad Tölz in 2002 at the age of 91.

Compose or die, he said. "So I decided on the former."

More about the composer

Composer Norbert Schultze on the creation of a propaganda song on YouTube "Kissed the devil on the butt - the astonishing career of the composer of" Lili Marleen "" on YouTube

Wilhelm Furtwängler and Beethoven's Ninth in Paris

The program for the presentation of Beethoven's ninth during the world exhibition in Paris in the Salle Pleyel on September 7, 1937 at 9:00 p.m. contains a statement by Walther Funk, Vice President of the Reich Chamber of Culture.

"The international exhibition of 1937 gives National Socialist Germany the opportunity to present the world with an overview of its achievements and achievements and thus an impression of the cultural and social life and events in Adolf Hitler's empire. The new Germany is shown in the» German pavilion "With various examples of his artistic, technical and social progress. The" Week of German Art "is intended to give the world an impression of the current state of opera, songs, dance and film from an artistic point of view."

Also in Paris, this time at the Théatre des Champs-Elysées, also during the world exhibition: Wilhelm Furtwängler and the Berlin Philharmonic as well as Bruno Walter and the Vienna Philharmonic, the two best orchestras in the world and obliged to, if you will, a musical competition.

After the exquisite performance of Mozart's "Requiem", the participants Elisabeth Schumann, Alexander Kipnis and Bruno Walter were forced to emigrate to the USA within months. Three of at least 1500 European musicians who fled across the Atlantic, "probably the greatest talent transfer in world history", as the author Volker Hagedorn writes in an article about Bruno Walter.

"And in an interview in 2009, the Dutch conductor Bernard Haitink, who grew up in Nazi-occupied Holland, says:" It's a very dangerous and uncomfortable thought, but I would never have become a conductor if all these catastrophes hadn't happened. There would have been so many more talented conductors than me. "

In January 1941, already in the USA, Bruno Walter wrote an article for the magazine "Decision-A Review of Free Culture" published by Klaus Mann with the title: "About war and music", in which he explained the importance of music in wartime was:

"I wanted to clarify to myself whether today, with the battle for humanity fought, music can keep the meaning of the past. And I began to understand that music is not an escape from worldly things; it can actually take an active role in it play [...] to cultivate what gives our life meaning, what ensures our future after the war, what is the highest service to a good cause [...] the voice of music can be one of those who hear it Conveying a message of hope It is the great duty of the musician today to spread the gospel of hope to all mankind without glossing over it.

Echoes of France

"One of the most joyful musical legacies of the Second World War is the record Echoes of France, which was released on January 21, 1946 in the Abbey Road studios of EMI in London by the great jazz musicians Django Reinhardt and Stéphane Grappelli with the newly formed Hot Club of France Reinhardt and Grappelli had been separated by the war for nearly six years, and when they met again in the illustrious rooms of the Athenaeum Club, according to a witness, the first thing they did was improvise an ecstatic jazz version of the French national anthem . A few days later, in their first recording session together since the defeat of France in 1940, it became Echoes of France. How could you have celebrated your joy at the liberation and the end of six long years of war? "

Two texts by Peter Wicke

Peter Wicke, born in Zwickau in 1951, is Professor of Theory and History of Popular Music and Director of the Popular Music Research Center at the Department of Musicology at the Humboldt University in Berlin. He has published a large number of articles at home and abroad on theoretical, historical and cultural-political problems of popular music, which have been translated into more than fifteen languages.
Popular music in fascist Germany and popular music as a theoretical concept

LeMO, German Historical Museum, Berlin on art and culture as an instrument of power

The National Socialists made a strict separation between "true German" and "degenerate" music. Composers branded as "corrosive" and "undesirable" included Alban Berg (1885-1935), Hanns Eisler, Paul Dessau (1894-1979) and Ernst Krenek (1900-1991). Others such as Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schönberg, Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847) and Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) were rejected because of their Jewish origins.
Especially popular music and dance hits experienced a tremendous boom and popularity surge during the Nazi regime and in the Second World War. The radio programs mostly offered this form of music, geared towards the tastes of a mass audience

Author of the program: Knut Benzner. The speakers were Stephan Schad, Volker Hanisch, Michael Haffke and the author. Director: the author. Technology and sound: Günter Arnold, Dr. Monika Künzel.

Here you can download the script for the broadcast, in PDF format

Here you can download the script for the broadcast, in txt format